Linux From Scratch

Version 6.0

Gerard Beekmans

Copyright (c) 1999–2004, Gerard Beekmans

All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Foreword

My adventures in Linux began six years ago when I downloaded and installed my first distribution. After working with it for awhile, I discovered issues I definitely would have liked to see improved upon. For example, I didn't like the arrangement of the bootscripts or the way programs were configured by default. I tried a number of alternate distributions to address these issues, yet each had its pros and cons. Finally, I realized that if I wanted full satisfaction from my Linux system, I would have to build my own from scratch.

What does this mean? I resolved not to use pre-compiled packages of any kind, nor CD-ROMs or boot disks that would install basic utilities. I would use my current Linux system to develop my own customized system. This “perfect” Linux system would then have the strengths of various systems without their associated weaknesses. In the beginning, the idea was rather daunting, but I remained committed to the idea that a system could be built that would conform to my needs and desires rather than to a standard that just did not fit what I was looking for.

After sorting through issues such as circular dependencies and compile-time errors, I created a custom-built Linux system that was fully operational and suitable to individual needs. This process also allowed me to create compact and streamlined Linux systems which are faster and take up less space than traditional operating systems. I called this system a Linux From Scratch system, or an LFS system for short.

As I shared my goals and experiences with other members of the Linux community, it became apparent that there was sustained interest in the ideas set forth in my Linux adventures. Such custom-built LFS systems not only to meet user specifications and requirements, but also serve as an ideal learning opportunity for programmers and system administrators to enhance their Linux skills. Out of this broadened interest, the Linux From Scratch Project was born.

This Linux From Scratch book provides readers with the background and instruction to design and build custom Linux systems. This book highlights the Linux from Scratch project and the benefits of using this system. Users can dictate all aspects of their system, including directory layout, script setup, and security. The resulting system will be compiled straight from the source code, and the user will be able to specify where, why, and how programs are installed. This book allows readers to fully customize Linux systems to their own needs and allows users more control over their system.

I hope you will have a great time working on your own LFS system, and enjoy the numerous benefits of having a system that is truly your own.

--
Gerard Beekmans
gerard@linuxfromscratch.org

Audience

There are many reasons why somebody would want to read this book. The principle reason is to install a Linux system straight from the source code. A question many people raise is, “why go through all the hassle of manually building a Linux system from scratch when you can just download and install an existing one?” That is a good question and is the impetus for this section of the book.

One important reason for LFS's existence is to help people learn how a Linux system works from the inside out. Building an LFS system helps demonstrate what makes Linux tick, and how things work together and depend on each other. One of the best things that this learning experience provides is the ability to customize Linux to your own tastes and needs.

A key benefit of LFS is that it allows users to have more control over the system without relying on someone else's Linux implementation. With LFS, you are in the driver's seat and dictate every aspect of the system, such as the directory layout and bootscript setup. You also dictate where, why, and how programs are installed.

Another benefit of LFS is the ability to create a very compact Linux system. When installing a regular distribution, one is often forced to install several programs which are probably never used. These programs waste precious disk space, or worse, CPU cycles. It is not difficult to build an LFS system of less than 100 megabytes (MB), which is substantially smaller compared to most existing setups. Does this still sound like a lot of space? A few of us have been working on creating a very small embedded LFS system. We successfully built a system that was specialized to run the Apache web server with approximately 8MB of disk space used. Further stripping could bring this down to 5 MB or less. Try that with a regular distribution! This is only one of the many benefits of designing your own Linux implementation.

We could compare Linux distributions to a hamburger purchased at a fast-food restaurant—you have no idea what might be in what you are eating. LFS, on the other hand, does not give you a hamburger. Rather, LFS provides the recipe to make the exact hamburger desired. This allows users to review the recipe, omit unwanted ingredients, and add your own ingredients to enhance the flavor of the burger. When you are satisfied with the recipe, move on to preparing it. It can be made to exact specifications—broil it, bake it, deep-fry it, or barbecue it.

Another analogy that we can use is that of comparing LFS with a finished house. LFS provides the skeletal plan of a house, but it is up to you to build it. LFS maintains the freedom to adjust plans throughout the process, customizing it to the user's needs and preferences.

An additional advantage of a custom built Linux system is security. By compiling the entire system from source code, you are empowered to audit everything and apply all the security patches desired. It is no longer necessary to wait for somebody else to compile binary packages that fix a security hole. Unless you examine the patch and implement it yourself, you have no guarantee that the new binary package was built correctly and adequately fixes the problem.

The goal of Linux From Scratch is to build a complete and usable foundation-level system. Readers who do not wish to build their own Linux system from scratch may not benefit from the information in this book. If you only want to know what happens while the computer boots, we recommend the “From Power Up To Bash Prompt” HOWTO located at http://axiom.anu.edu.au/~okeefe/p2b/ or on The Linux Documentation Project's (TLDP) website at http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/From-PowerUp-To-Bash-Prompt-HOWTO.html. The HOWTO builds a system which is similar to that of this book, but it focuses strictly on creating a system capable of booting to a BASH prompt. Consider your objective. If you wish to build a Linux system while learning along the way, then this book is your best choice.

There are too many good reasons to build your own LFS system to list them all here. This section is only the tip of the iceberg. As you continue in your LFS experience, you will find the power that information and knowledge truly bring.

Prerequisites

This book assumes that the reader has a reasonable knowledge of using and installing Linux software. Before building an LFS system, we recommend reading the following HOWTOs:

Typography

To make things easier to follow, there are a few typographical conventions used throughout this book. This section contains some examples of the typographical format found throughout Linux From Scratch.

./configure --prefix=/usr

This form of text is designed to be typed exactly as seen unless otherwise noted in the surrounding text. It is also used in the explanation sections to identify which of the commands is being referenced.

install-info: unknown option '--dir-file=/mnt/lfs/usr/info/dir'

This form of text (fixed width text) shows screen output, probably as the result of commands issued. This format is also used to show filenames, such as /etc/ld.so.conf.

Emphasis

This form of text is used for several purposes in the book, mainly to emphasize important points or items.

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/

This format is used for hyperlinks, both within the LFS community and to external pages, including HOWTOs, download locations, and websites.

cat > $LFS/etc/group << "EOF"
root:x:0:
bin:x:1:
......
EOF

This format is used when creating configuration files. The first command tells the system to create the file $LFS/etc/group from whatever is typed on the following lines until the sequence end of file (EOF) is encountered. Therefore, this entire section is generally typed as seen.

[REPLACED TEXT]

This format is used to encapsulate text that is not to be typed as seen or copy-and-pasted.

Structure

This book is divided into the following parts.

Part I - Introduction

Part I explains a few important notes on how to proceed with the LFS installation. This section also provides meta-information about the book.

Part II - Preparing for the Build

Part II describes how to prepare for the building process—making a partition, downloading the packages, and compiling temporary tools.

Part III - Building the LFS System

Part III guides the reader through the building of the LFS system—compiling and installing all the packages one by one, setting up the boot scripts, and installing the kernel. The resulting Linux system is the foundation on which other software can be built to expand the system as desired. At the end of this book, there is an easy to use reference listing all of the programs, libraries, and important files that have been installed.

Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

How to Build an LFS System

The LFS system will be built by using a previously installed Linux distribution (such as Debian, Mandrake, Red Hat, or SuSE). This existing Linux system (the host) will be used as a starting point to provide necessary programs, including a compiler, linker, and shell, to build the new system. Select the “development” option during the distribution installation to be able to access these tools.

Chapter 2 of this book describes how to create a new Linux native partition and file system, the place where the new LFS system will be compiled and installed. Chapter 3 explains which packages and patches need to be downloaded to build an LFS system and how to store them on the new file system. Chapter 4 discusses the setup for an appropriate work environment. Please read Chapter 4 carefully as it explains several important issues the developer should be aware of before beginning to work through Chapter 5 and beyond.

Chapter 5 explains the installation of a number of packages that will form the basic development suite (or toolchain) which is used to build the actual system in Chapter 6. Some of these packages are needed to resolve circular dependencies—for example, to compile a compiler, you need a compiler.

Chapter 5 also shows the user how to build a first pass of the toolchain, including Binutils and GCC (first pass basically means these two core packages will be re-installed a second time). The programs from these packages will be linked statically in order to be used independently of the host system. The next step is to build Glibc, the C library. Glibc will be compiled by the toolchain programs built in the first pass. Then, a second pass of the toolchain will be built. This time, the toolchain will be dynamically linked against the newly built Glibc. The remaining Chapter 5 packages are built using this second pass toolchain. When this is done, the LFS installation process will no longer depend on the host distribution, with the exception of the running kernel.

While this may initially seem like a lot of work to get away from a host distribution, a full technical explanation is provided at the beginning of Chapter 5, including notes on the differences between statically and dynamically-linked programs.

In Chapter 6, the full LFS system is built. The chroot (change root) program is used to enter a virtual environment and start a new shell whose root directory will be set to the LFS partition. This is very similar to rebooting and instructing the kernel to mount the LFS partition as the root partition. The system does not actually reboot, but instead chroots because creating a bootable system requires additional work which is not necessary just yet. The major advantage is that “chrooting” allows the builder to continue using the host while LFS is being built. While waiting for package compilation to complete, a user can switch to a different virtual console (VC) or X desktop and continue using the computer as normal.

To finish the installation, the bootscripts are set up in Chapter 7, and the kernel and boot loader are set up in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 contains information on furthering the LFS experience beyond this book. After the steps in this book have been implemented, the computer will be ready to reboot into the new LFS system.

This is the process in a nutshell. Detailed information on each step is discussed in the following chapters and package descriptions. Items that may seem complicated will be clarified, and everything will fall into place as the developer embarks on the LFS adventure.

Changelog

This is version 6.0 of the Linux From Scratch book, dated October 06, 2004. If this book is more than two months old, a newer and better version is probably already available. To find out, please check one of the mirrors via http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/.

Below is a list of changes made since the previous release of the book, first a summary, then a detailed log.

  • Upgraded to:

    • automake-1.9.1

    • bash-3.0

    • binutils-2.15.91.0.2

    • bison-1.875a

    • expect-5.42.1

    • file-4.10

    • flex-2.5.31

    • gawk-3.1.4

    • gcc-3.4.1

    • glibc-2.3.4-20040701

    • groff-1.19.1

    • lfs-bootscripts-2.2.2

    • libtool-1.5.8

    • linux-2.6.8.1

    • m4-1.4.2

    • man-1.5o

    • man-pages-1.67

    • perl-5.8.5

    • procps-3.2.3

    • psmisc-21.5

    • sed-4.1.2

    • tar-1.14

    • tcl-8.4.7

    • util-linux-2.12b

    • vim-6.3

  • Added:

    • bash-3.0-display_wrap-1.patch

    • coreutils-5.2.1-suppress_hostname_uptime_kill_su-1.patch

    • flex-2.5.31-debian_fixes-2.patch

    • gcc-3.4.1-linkonce-1.patch

    • inetutils-1.4.2-kernel_headers-1.patch

    • iproute2-2.6.8-040823

    • iproute2-2.6.8_040823-remove_db-1.patch

    • linux-libc-headers-2.6.8.1

    • module-init-tools-3.0

    • readline-5.0

    • readline-5.0-display_wrap-1.patch

    • sysklogd-1.4.1-kernel_headers-1.patch

    • sysklogd-1.4.1-signal-1.patch

    • sysvinit-2.85-proclen-1.patch

    • texinfo-4.7-segfault-1.patch

    • udev-030

    • udev-config-1.permissions

    • udev-config-1.rules

    • util-linux-2.12b-sfdisk-2.patch

    • vim-6.3 language files

    • zlib-1.2.1-security-1.patch

  • Removed:

    • bison-1.875-attribute.patch

    • coreutils-5.2.1-hostname-1.patch

    • ed-0.2

    • gcc-2.95.3

    • kbd-1.12-more-programs-1.patch

    • modutils-2.4.25

    • net-tools-1.60

    • net-tools-1.60-miitool-gcc33-1.patch

    • procinfo-18

  • September 30th, 2004 [gerard]: Minor textual edits. Added page to explain bootable CD included with the printed book.

  • September 29th, 2004 [matt]: chapter08/kernel - Removed redundant comment regarding hotplug configuration (fixes bug 914 - Alexander E. Patrakov).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: chapter06/texinfo - Added a description for the texinfo segfault patch (fixes bug 917 - Randy McMurchy).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: chapter06/zlib - Added a description for the zlib security patch (fixes bug 916 - Randy McMurchy).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: chapter06/glibc - glibcbug isn't installed in recent versions of glibc (bug 915 - Randy McMurchy).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: chapter05/introduction - we never explain how to unpack a tarball (Jeremy Huntwork).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: Minor correction - test suites are simply not mandatory in chapter 5, rather than not being recommended (bug 913 - Randy McMurchy).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: Added description of libexpect, and corrected the version number of the installed file (bug 912 - Randy McMurchy).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: Corrected the command used to verify the status of the hardware clock (Anderson Lizardo)

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: Added “su” to the list of files installed by shadow

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: Remove potential confusion caused by incorrect text in replaceable tags (bug 906 - Igor Zivkovic).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: Small typo correction (Igor Zivkovic).

  • September 28th, 2004 [matt]: Added a note regarding a known failure in the GRUB testsuite

  • September 23rd, 2004 [jeremy]: Changed the util-linux patch to the new, corrected fix, courtesy of Jim Gifford and Greg Schafer

  • September 13th, 2004 [jeremy]: Added the security patch for Zlib

  • September 13th, 2004 [jeremy]: Added the patch to resolve a segfault problem in the info program.

  • September 13th, 2004 [jeremy]: Replaced the util-linux sed with a patch file instead.

  • September 12th, 2004 [manuel]: Fixed some URLs.

  • September 10th, 2004 [manuel]: Appendix{a,b} - Changes in the XML, XSL and CSS code to do a better output.

  • September 9th, 2004 [gerard]: Added missing colon to group name in Chapter 6-Coreutils used by the test suite.

  • September 9th, 2004 [manuel]: Added support to can have different contextual phrases for HTML or PDF output.

  • September 9th, 2004 [manuel]: Chapter 6 - Moved the para about the missing /etc/fstab from kernfs.xml to devices.xml.

  • September 4th, 2004 [manuel]: Tags corrections.

  • August 31th, 2004 [manuel]: stylesheets. Several changes to improve HTML and PDF output. Some XML tags changes related with the stylesheets changes.

  • August 30th, 2004 [matt]: chapter06/util-linux.xml. -funit-at-a-time is implied by -O2, and it was this specific option that was causing the runtime problems with sfdisk. Instead of dropping to -O1 optimisation, we simply prevent the problematic optimisation by specifying -fno-unit-at-a-time.

  • August 30th, 2004 [matt]: chapter06/udev.xml. Renumber udev permissions and rules files to allow easier customisation. Fixes bug 887.

  • August 30th, 2004 [matt]: Minor typo corrections in appendixb/acronymlist.xml (Tero Tamminen)

  • August 30th, 2004 [matt]: Drop optimisation level of util-linux from O2 to O1, so as sfdisk works properly when compiled with gcc-3.4.1

  • August 29th, 2004 [matt]: Upgraded to linux-libc-headers-2.6.8.1

  • August 29th, 2004 [matt]: Added gcc-3.4.1-linkonce-1.patch, so as our toolchain can compile Mozilla and kdegraphics (to name but 2 packages) once again. See http://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=16625 for more details.

  • August 29th, 2004 [gerard]: Added Appendix B - Acronyms.

  • August 29th, 2004 [gerard]: Moved acknowledgements to Appendix A.

  • August 29th, 2004 [matt]: Upgraded to autoconf-1.9.1, gawk-3.1.4, iproute2-2.6.8-040823, linux-2.6.8.1, m4-1.4.2, man-1.5o, procps-3.2.3 (removing unnecessary rm command, sed-4.1.2 and util-linux-2.12b (removing kernel-headers patch as the issue has been fixed upstream).

  • August 29th, 2004 [gerard]: Added missing SBU for readline.

  • August 29th, 2004 [gerard]: Completed second global textual edits.

  • August 17th, 2004 [gerard]: Added Bash and Readline Display Wrap patches.

  • August 8th, 2004 [gerard]: Upgraded to iproute2-2.6.8-ss040730.

  • August 8th, 2004 [gerard]: Added notes regarding missing test suites for diffutils, ncurses, patch, utils-linux and udev. Added note to chapter05/perl not to run the test suite.

  • August 7th, 2004 [gerard]: Completed global textual edits.

  • August 7th, 2004 [gerard]: Upgraded to expect-5.42.1.

  • August 7th, 2004 [gerard]: hostname binary moved to /bin as well.

  • August 3rd, 2004 [jim]: Made suggested change to the home location of pt_chown

  • July 30, 2004 [jeremy]: Upgraded to automake-1.9, man-1.5n, file-4.10, bash-3.0, perl-5.8.5, readline-5.0, tcl-8.4.7, binutils-2.15.91.0.2

  • July 22, 2004 [manuel]: Prologue: Added a para about replaceable text

  • July 20, 2004 [jeremy]: Corrected the double-creation of /var/tmp (Kris van Rens and others)

  • July 19, 2004 [matt]: Upgraded to udev-030.

  • July 19, 2004 [matt]: Upgraded to procps-3.2.2.

  • July 16, 2004 [matt]: Install iproute2 to /sbin to comply with the FHS and to allow the bootscripts to run even if /usr is mounted on a separate filesystem. (Oliver Brakmann)

  • July 15, 2004 [matt]: Fixed various networking inaccuracies (Kevin P. Fleming)

  • July 14, 2004 [matt]: chapter07/network.xml - A couple of minor fixes for the network configuration

  • July 14, 2004 [matt]: chapter06/iproute2.xml - Fixed remaining reference to net-tools

  • July 14, 2004 [matt]: chapter06/udev.xml - Explained udevdir option

  • July 12, 2004 [matt]: Network bootscripts now support directory based configurations.

  • July 12, 2004 [matt]: Upgraded to lfs-bootscripts-2.2.0.

  • July 12, 2004 [matt]: Swapped iproute2 in for net-tools (kudos and many thanks to Jim Gifford)

  • July 7, 2004 [matt]: Removed hotplug.

  • July 6, 2004 [matt]: Upgraded to sed-4.1.1.

  • July 5, 2004 [alexander]: Updated GCC testresults link.

  • July 3, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Glibc 2.3.4-20040701.

  • July 2, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to GCC 3.4.1.

  • July 2, 2004 [winkie]: Updated the Udev permissions configuration to include the nvidia kernel modules.

  • June 29, 2004 [alexander]: Explained the benefits of setting LC_ALL properly.

  • June 28, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Udev 028, and dropped the Udev permissions patch.

  • June 28, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to LFS-Bootscripts 2.1.2.

  • June 27, 2004 [matt]: Moved glibc test result discussion to chapter 6 (where it is actually recommended to be run). Also made it clearer that the tests in chapter 5 are optional, as opposed to not recommended

  • June 26, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to GCC 3.4.1-20040625.

  • June 26, 2004 [matt]: Added descriptions for udev package contents (Alexander Patrakov)

  • June 24, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Linux-Libc-Headers 2.6.7.0 and updated the Net-tools GCC 3.4 patch.

  • June 24, 2004 [alexander]: Wordings changed on the hotplug page

  • June 24, 2004 [alexander]: Removed hotplug isapnp patch for a while until bugs are fixed

  • June 23, 2004 [matt]: Removed the note regarding the use of GRUB's --no-mem-option

  • June 23, 2004 [matt]: Removed dpasswd from shadow's list of installed files.

  • June 23, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to LFS-Bootscripts 2.1.2-pre2.

  • June 21, 2004 [winkie]: Added the Udev permissions patch to fix a regression from version 023 (really nasty bug, too).

  • June 20, 2004 [matt]: chapter07 - console. Add a note regarding the screen font not being set automatically when the console script isn't run. (Alexander Patrakov)

  • June 20, 2004 [matt]: chapter03 - packages. Point people at the FTP mirrors and GnuPG.

  • June 19, 2004 [winkie]: Modified Flex installation to only touch the flex.1 manual page, since that's the only one that exists.

  • June 19, 2004 [matt]: chapter05 - hostreqs. Provide clearer information regarding determining whether the host kernel is suitable for passing glibcs test suite

  • June 19, 2004 [matt]: chapter06 - creatingdirs. Use `install -d` instead of `mkdir` (fixes bug #821)

  • June 19, 2004 [matt]: chapter04 - addinguser. Make the lfs user a member of the lfs group, in case hosts add a new user to a non-existent gid by default (which causes the glibc test suite to fail). Fixes bug #856.

  • June 19, 2004 [matt]: chapter07 - console & chapter 08 - kernel. Improved wording and re-introduced the option for compiling the keymap directly into the kernel.

  • June 19, 2004 [matt]: chapter06 - e2fsprogs, brought instructions inline with upstream recommendations.

  • June 19, 2004 [manuel]: Applied the Index entries for Hotplug and Linux-Libc-Headers. Tags corrections.

  • June 18, 2004 [winkie]: Instead of using the udev binary, use the udev daemon instead.

  • June 17, 2004 [matt]: Added the sed permissions patch.

  • June 17, 2004 [matt]: Clarify that a gcc-3.x compiled 2.6.x kernel is required on the host.

  • June 16, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Linux 2.6.7 and dropped the FPU patch.

  • June 16, 2004 [alexander]: Removed the fileencodings line due to a bug which causes Vim to default to UTF-8.

  • June 15, 2004 [winkie]: Corrected installation of Readline.

  • June 15, 2004 [winkie]: Recreate Udev's entry in /etc/hotplug.d, since it's not correct for our purposes by default.

  • June 15, 2004 [winkie]: Dropped the Udev patch in favor copying the configuration file(s) to /etc/udev after installation.

  • June 15, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Sed 4.1.

  • June 15, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Udev 027.

  • June 15, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to LFS-Bootscripts 2.1.2-pre1.

  • June 15, 2004 [winkie]: Patched the kernel sources so that it defaults to /bin/true as the hotplug manager.

  • June 14, 2004 [matt]: Removed GNU/Linux in line with common usage regarding the recurring GNU/Linux vs. Linux debate (Larry Lawrence).

  • June 14, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to GRUB 0.95. Removed the “--no-mem-option” argument from GRUB's menu.lst, since it is now the default.

  • June 13, 2004 [alexander]: Security: added linux-2.6.6-fpu-1.patch

  • June 12, 2004 [jeremy]: Chapter 6 - Hotplug - corrected the name of the bogus deps patch

  • June 12, 2004 [alexander]: British people speak English but need loadkeys and setfont (reported by Dave Mascall on IRC). Corrected the text on the console page to account for this

  • June 12, 2004 [alexander]: Re-added the “background” option to /etc/vimrc, since it has some educational value. Put this option inside an “if” statement because it applies to some, not all, terminals

  • June 11, 2004 [winkie]: Dropped hackish GRUB instructions in favor of a patch from upstream.

  • June 11, 2004 [winkie]: Force Readline to link against Ncurses.

  • June 11, 2004 [alexander]: Added sysvinit-2.85-proclen-1.patch

  • June 10, 2004 [alexander]: Reverted the bogus change of package order. Removed the “background” line from /etc/vimrc because it matches the default on Linux console

  • June 10, 2004 [alexander]: Added a command to autodetect the character set of files being edited to /etc/vimrc

  • June 10, 2004 [alexander]: Added vim language files. Moved vim after gettext in order for them to work

  • June 9, 2004 [jeremy]: Upgraded to M4-1.4.1, after 9 years!

  • June 9, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Linux-Libc-Headers 2.6.6.0.

  • June 9, 2004 [winkie]: Updated locations of the Glibc & GCC tarballs.

  • June 7, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Udev 026.

  • June 7, 2004 [winkie]: Dropped Net-tools patch for kernel headers in favor of a simple sed.

  • June 7, 2004 [winkie]: Normalized “sed” usage throughout the book.

  • June 7, 2004 [winkie]: Use the “gcc --print-file specs” command to determine the location of the “specs” file.

  • June 7, 2004 [winkie]: Updated patch names to match those used by the patches project.

  • June 7, 2004 [winkie]: Globally changed “DejaGnu” to “DejaGNU”.

  • June 7, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Vim 6.3.

  • June 2, 2004 [matt]: Prologue - acknowledgments, Added Thomas Reitelbach as the German translator

  • June 2nd, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to GCC 3.4.1-20040601. This release fixes bugs with reference to both GCC 3.4.0 and GCC 3.4.1-20040517. Also upgraded to Glibc 2.3.4-20040529 which includes lots of fixes for non-x86 architectures.

  • June 1st, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Binutils 2.15.91.0.1. This release provides the “-z relro” option.

  • June 1st, 2004 [winkie]: Inconsequential wrapping fixes.

  • May 29, 2004 [alexander]: Mentioned the hotplug+udev+modules problem. Removed the effectively dead link to the Kernel HOWTO.

  • May 29, 2004 [alexander]: Corrected usbfs line in /etc/fstab.

  • May 29, 2004 [alexander]: New LFS bootscripts already come with the /etc/sysconfig/console file. Corrected the text.

  • May 25, 2004 [jeremy]: Chapter 6 - Upgraded psmisc to 21.5.

  • May 25, 2004 [jeremy]: Corrected download location for the lfs-bootscripts package

  • May 24, 2004 [jeremy]: Upgraded to libc-headers 2.6.5.2

  • May 23, 2004 [jeremy]: Chapter 6 - Vim - added an option to the vimrc config file

  • May 23th, 2004 [alexander]: Don't list the initscript in the contents of the Hotplug package. The reason is that we use winkie's replacement script from LFS-Bootscripts.

  • May 23th, 2004 [alexander]: Fixed XML validation error.

  • May 20th, 2004 [winkie]: Moved group “usb” to GID 14, instead of 15.

  • May 20th, 2004 [winkie]: Dropped Hotplug's “cosmetic” patch in favor of the script from LFS-Bootscripts and some general textual/rendering cleanups.

  • May 20th, 2004 [winkie]: Point to the correct GCC patches.

  • May 20th, 2004 [alexander]: Added Hotplug 2004_04_01.

  • May 19th, 2004 [winkie]: Change permissions of /dev/random to 0444 instead of 0666.

  • May 19th, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Binutils 2.15 & GCC 3.4.1-20040517.

  • May 18th, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to LFS-Bootscripts 2.1.1.

  • May 16th, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Automake-1.8.5.

  • May 15th, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to LFS-Bootscripts 2.1.1-pre2.

  • May 14th, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Groff 1.19.1.

  • May 14th, 2004 [alexander]: Several textual changes on Vim page.

  • May 12th, 2004 [winkie]: Apply patch to assure Coreutils doesn't install any binaries that we don't need/want.

  • May 12th, 2004 [winkie]: Don't pass “-default” to Man's configure, since it's not needed anymore.

  • May 12th, 2004 [winkie]: Shorten the “sed” used on Gzip's gzexe.in file.

  • May 12th, 2004 [winkie]: Fixed Coreutils test suite execution.

  • May 11th, 2004 [winkie]: Don't build the PCH header for libstdc++ in Chapter 5 -- it's just a waste of space.

  • May 11th, 2004 [winkie]: Upgraded to Glibc 2.3.4-20040510 and Tar 1.14.

  • May 10th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 8 - Upgraded to Linux 2.6.6.

  • May 7th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 6 - When configuring Vim, pass the “--enable-multibyte” option.

  • May 6th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 6 - Add Readline installation and use it when building Bash.

  • May 6th, 2004 [winkie]: Added Alexander Patrakov's I18n patch.

  • May 4th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 6 - Create and use the “utmp” group.

  • May 4th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 7 - Upgraded to LFS-Bootscripts 2.1.0 and modify the book to work with it.

  • May 4th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 6 - Install the “passwd” binary in /bin instead of /usr/bin.

  • May 4th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 6 - Switch the uname patch we use, so that we get correct results.

  • May 4th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 8 - Use the full LFS version for the GRUB title.

  • May 4th, 2004 [winkie]: Chapter 5 & 6 - Use new patch naming “standard”.

  • May 3rd, 2004 [winkie]: Merged BE-LFS content - thanks to Ron and Jason Scott for the help they gave to BE-LFS before integration.

Release of version 5.1.1 on June 6th, 2004.

Resources

FAQ

If during the building of the LFS system you encounter any errors, have any questions, or think there is a typo in the book, please start by consulting the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/faq/.

Mailing Lists

The linuxfromscratch.org server hosts a number of mailing lists used for the development of the LFS project. These lists include the main development and support lists, among others.

For information on the different lists, how to subscribe, archive locations, and additional information, visit http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/mail.html.

IRC

Several members of the LFS community offer assistance on our community Internet Relay Chat (IRC) network. Before using this support, please make sure that your question is not already answered in the LFS FAQ or the mailing list archives. You can find the IRC network at irc.linuxfromscratch.org or irc.linux-phreak.net. The support channel is named #LFS-support.

News Server

The mailing lists hosted at linuxfromscratch.org are also accessible via the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) server. All messages posted to a mailing list are copied to the corresponding newsgroup, and vice versa.

The news server is located at news.linuxfromscratch.org.

Wiki

For more information on packages, updated versions, tweaks, and personal experiences, see the LFS Wiki at http://wiki.linuxfromscratch.org/. Users can also add information there to help others with their future LFS activities.

References

For additional information on the packages, useful tips are available at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/~matthew/LFS-references.html.

Mirror Sites

The LFS project has a number of world-wide mirrors to make accessing the website and downloading the required packages more convenient. Please visit the LFS website at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/ for a list of current mirrors.

Contact Information

Please direct all your questions and comments to one of the LFS mailing lists (see above).

Help

If an issue or a question is encountered while working through this book, check the FAQ page at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/faq/#generalfaq. Questions are often already answered there. If your question is not answered on this page, try to find the source of the problem. The following hint will give you some guidance for troubleshooting: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/errors.txt.

We also have a wonderful LFS community that is willing to offer assistance through IRC and the mailing lists (see the the section called “Resources” section of this book). In order to assist with diagnosing and solving the problem, please include all relevant information in your request for help.

Things to Mention

Apart from a brief explanation of the problem being experienced, the essential things to include in any request for help are:

  • The version of the book being used (in this case 6.0)

  • The host distribution and version being used to create LFS

  • The package or section the problem was encountered in

  • The exact error message or symptom being received

  • Note whether you have deviated from the book at all

[Note]

Note

Deviating from this book does not mean that we will not help you. After all, LFS is about personal preference. Being upfront about any changes to the established procedure helps us evaluate and determine possible causes of your problem.

Configure Problems

If something goes wrong during the stage where the configure script is run, review the config.log file. This file may contain errors encountered during configure which were not printed to the screen. Include those relevant lines if you need to ask for help.

Compile Problems

Both the screen output and the contents of various files are useful in determining the cause of compile issues. The screen output from the ./configure script and the make run can be helpful. It is not necessary to include the entire output, but do include enough of the relevant information. Below is an example of the type of information to include from the screen output from make:

gcc -DALIASPATH=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/share/locale:.\"
-DLOCALEDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/share/locale\" 
-DLIBDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/lib\"
-DINCLUDEDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/include\" -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -I. -I.
-g -O2 -c getopt1.c
gcc -g -O2 -static -o make ar.o arscan.o commands.o dir.o 
expand.o file.o function.o getopt.o implicit.o job.o main.o 
misc.o read.o remake.o rule.o signame.o variable.o vpath.o 
default.o remote-stub.o version.o opt1.o
-lutil job.o: In function `load_too_high':
/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1/job.c:1565: undefined reference 
to `getloadavg'
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
make[2]: *** [make] Error 1
make[2]: Leaving directory `/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1'
make[1]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory `/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1'
make: *** [all-recursive-am] Error 2

In this case, many people would just include the bottom section:

make [2]: *** [make] Error 1

This is not enough information to properly diagnose the problem because it only notes that something went wrong, not what went wrong. The entire section, as in the example above, is what should be saved because it includes the command that was executed and the associated error message(s).

An excellent article about asking for help on the Internet is available online at http://catb.org/~esr/faqs/smart-questions.html. Read and follow the hints in this document to increase the likelihood of getting the help you need.

Test Suite Problems

Many packages provide a test suite which, depending on the importance of the package, should be run. Sometimes packages will generate false or expected failures. If these errors are encountered, check the LFS Wiki page at http://wiki.linuxfromscratch.org/ to see if we have noted and investigated these issues. If these issues are noted and addressed, there is no need to be concerned.

About the Included CD

For your convenience, we have included a CD with this book that contains the source packages needed for creating a Linux From Scratch system. The CD is bootable and provides a stable working environment for building LFS. This book refers to this system as the “host system.

In addition to the tools required to build LFS, the host system on the CD has a number of other helpful tools installed:

  • An HTML version of this book

  • The X Window System Environment

  • Web Tools

    • Wget (command line file retriever)

    • Lynx (text web browser)

    • Irssi (console IRC client)

    • Firefox (graphical web browser)

    • Xchat (X-based IRC client)

  • Text Editors

    • Vim

    • Nano

  • Network Tools

    • SSH Server and Client

    • NFS Server and Client

    • Smbmount (mount.cifs) for Windows shares

    • Subversion

    • Dhcpcd (DHCP client)

  • Filesystem Programs

    • Reiserfsprogs

    • Xfsprogs

  • nALFS - A tool for automating LFS builds

Chapter 2. Preparing a New Partition

Introduction

In this chapter, the partition which will host the LFS system is prepared. We will create the partition itself, create a file system on it, and mount it.

Creating a New Partition

In order to build a new Linux system, space is required in the form of an empty disk partition. If the computer does not have a free partition or room on any of the hard disks to make one, LFS can be built on the same partition where the current distribution is installed.

[Note]

Note

This advanced procedure is not recommended for your first LFS installation, but if you are short on disk space the following document can be helpful: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/ lfs_next_to_existing_systems.txt.

A minimal system requires a partition of around 1.3 gigabytes (GB). This is enough to store all the source tarballs and compile the packages. However, if the LFS system is intended to be the primary Linux system, additional software will probably be installed which will require additional space (2 or 3 GB). The LFS system itself will not take up this much space. A large portion of this required amount of space is to provide sufficient free temporary space. Compiling packages can require a lot of disk space which will be reclaimed after the package is installed.

Because there is not always enough Random Access Memory (RAM) available for compilation processes, it is a good idea to use a small disk partition as swap space. This space is used by the kernel to store seldom-used data to make room in memory for active processes. The swap partition for an LFS system can be the same as the one used by the host system, so another swap partition will not need to be created if your host system already has one setup.

Start a disk partitioning program such as cfdisk or fdisk with a command line option naming the hard disk on which the new partition will be created—for example /dev/hda for the primary Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) disk. Create a Linux native partition and a swap partition, if needed. Please refer to the man pages of cfdisk or fdisk if you do not yet know how to use the programs.

Remember the designation of the new partition (e.g., hda5). This book will refer to this as the LFS partition. Also remember the designation of the swap partition. These names will be needed later for the /etc/fstab file.

Creating a File System on the Partition

Now that a blank partition has been set up, the file system can be created. The most widely-used system in the Linux world is the second extended file system (ext2), but with the newer high-capacity hard disks, the journaling file systems are becoming increasingly popular. Here we will create an ext2 file system, but build instructions for other file systems can be found at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/postlfs/filesystems.html.

To create an ext2 file system on the LFS partition, run the following:

mke2fs /dev/[xxx]

Replace [xxx] with the name of the LFS partition (hda5 in our previous example).

If a swap partition was created, it will need to be initialized as a swap partition too (also known as formatting, as described above with mke2fs) by running the following. If you are using an existing swap partition, there is no need to format it.

mkswap /dev/[yyy]

Replace [yyy] with the name of the swap partition.

Mounting the New Partition

Now that a file system has been created, the partition needs to be made accessible. In order to do this, the partition needs to be mounted at a chosen mount point. For the purposes of this book, it is assumed that the file system is mounted under /mnt/lfs, but the directory choice is up to you.

Choose a mount point and assign it to the LFS environment variable by running:

export LFS=/mnt/lfs

Next, create the mount point and mount the LFS file system by running:

mkdir -p $LFS
mount /dev/[xxx] $LFS

Replace [xxx] with the designation of the LFS partition.

If using multiple partitions for LFS (e.g., one for / and another for /usr), mount them using:

mkdir -p $LFS
mount /dev/[xxx] $LFS
mkdir $LFS/usr
mount /dev/[yyy] $LFS/usr

Replace [xxx] and [yyy] with the appropriate partition names.

Ensure that this new partition is not mounted with permissions that are too restrictive (such as the nosuid, nodev, or noatime options). Run the mount command without any parameters to see what options are set for the mounted LFS partition. If nosuid, nodev, and/or noatime are set, the partition will need to be remounted.

Now that there is an established place to work, it is time to download the packages.

Preparing for the Build

Chapter 3. Packages and Patches

Introduction

This chapter includes a list of packages that need to be downloaded for building a basic Linux system. The listed version numbers correspond to versions of the software that are known to work, and this book is based on their use. We highly recommend not using newer versions because the build commands for one version may not work with a newer version. The newest package versions may also have problems that work-arounds have not been developed for yet.

All the URLs, when possible, refer to the package's information page at http://www.freshmeat.net/. The Freshmeat pages provide easy access to official download sites, as well as project websites, mailing lists, FAQ, changelogs, and more.

Download locations may not always be accessible. If a download location has changed since this book was published, Google (http://www.google.com) provides a useful search engine for most packages. If this search is unsuccessful, try one of the alternate means of downloading discussed at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/packages.html.

Downloaded packages and patches will need to be stored somewhere that is conveniently available throughout the entire build. A working directory is also required to unpack the sources and build them. $LFS/sources can be used both as the place to store the tarballs and patches and as a working directory. By using this directory, the required elements will be located on the LFS partition and will be available during all stages of the building process.

To create this directory, execute, as user root, the following command before starting the download session:

mkdir $LFS/sources

Make this directory writable and sticky. “Sticky” means that even if multiple users have write permission on a directory, only the owner of a file can delete the file within a sticky directory. The following command will enable the write and sticky modes:

chmod a+wt $LFS/sources

All Packages

Download or otherwise obtain the following packages:

Autoconf (2.59) - 903 kilobytes (KB):

http://freshmeat.net/projects/autoconf/

Automake (1.9.1) - 681 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/automake/

Bash (3.0) - 1,910 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/gnubash/

Binutils (2.15.91.0.2) - 10,666 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/binutils/?branch_id=12688

Bison (1.875a) - 796 KB:

ftp://ftp.linuxfromscratch.org/pub/lfs/lfs-packages/conglomeration/bison/

Bzip2 (1.0.2) - 650 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/bzip2/

Coreutils (5.2.1) - 3,860 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/coreutils/

DejaGNU (1.4.4) - 1,055 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/dejagnu/

Diffutils (2.8.1) - 762 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/diffutils/

E2fsprogs (1.35) - 3,003 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/e2fsprogs/

Expect (5.42.1) - 510 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/expect/

File (4.10) - 356 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/file/

[Note]

Note

File (4.10) may no longer be available at the listed location. The site administrators of the master download location occasionally remove older versions when new ones are released. An alternate download location that may have the correct version available is ftp://ftp.linuxfromscratch.org/pub/lfs/.

Findutils (4.1.20) - 760 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/findutils/

Flex (2.5.31) - 372 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/flex/

Gawk (3.1.4) - 1,692 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/gnuawk/

GCC (3.4.1) - 27,000 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/gcc/

Gettext (0.14.1) - 6,397 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/gettext/

Glibc (2.3.4-20040701) - 13,101 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/glibc/

[Note]

Note

Released packages of Glibc are not new enough for our purposes, so create a tarball of an appropriate Concurrent Versions System (CVS) snapshot with the following commands:

cvs -z 3 -d \
    :pserver:anoncvs@sources.redhat.com:/cvs/glibc \
    export -d glibc-2.3.4-20040701 \
    -D "2004-07-01 17:30 UTC" libc
sed -i -e "s/stable/2004-07-01/" \
    -e "s/2\.3\.3/2.3.4/" \
    glibc-2.3.4-20040701/version.h
tar jcvf glibc-2.3.4-20040701.tar.bz2 \
    glibc-2.3.4-20040701

Alternatively, the LFS team developed a tarball which can be downloaded from any of the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) mirrors listed on the LFS Website at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/packages.html#http. It is located under the /pub/lfs/packages/conglomeration/glibc directory. The tarball is signed using GNU Privacy Guard (GPG), and it is strongly recommended that its authenticity be verified before use. Instructions for installing GPG, which enables verification, are provided in the Beyond Linux From Scratch (BLFS) book at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/postlfs/gnupg.html.

Grep (2.5.1) - 545 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/grep/

Groff (1.19.1) - 2,360 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/groff/

Grub (0.95) - 902 KB:

ftp://alpha.gnu.org/pub/gnu/grub/

Gzip (1.3.5) - 324 KB:

ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/

Iana-Etc (1.01) - 161 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/iana-etc/

Inetutils (1.4.2) - 1,019 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/inetutils/

IPRoute2 (2.6.8-040823) - 264 KB:

http://developer.osdl.org/dev/iproute2/download/

Kbd (1.12) - 617 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/kbd/

Less (382) - 259 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/less/

LFS-Bootscripts (2.2.2) - 16 KB:

http://downloads.linuxfromscratch.org/

Libtool (1.5.8) - 2,602 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/libtool/

Linux (2.6.8.1) - 34,793 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/linux/?branch_id=46339

Linux-Libc-Headers (2.6.8.1) - 2,602 KB:

http://ep09.pld-linux.org/~mmazur/linux-libc-headers/

M4 (1.4.2) - 337 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/gnum4/

Make (3.80) - 899 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/gnumake/

Man (1.5o) - 223 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/man/

Man-pages (1.67) - 1,586 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/man-pages/

Mktemp (1.5) - 69 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/mktemp/

Module-Init-Tools (3.0) - 118 KB:

ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/module-init-tools/

Ncurses (5.4) - 2,019 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/ncurses/

Patch (2.5.4) - 182 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/patch/

Perl (5.8.5) - 9,373 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/perl/

Procps (3.2.3) - 265 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/procps/

Psmisc (21.5) - 375 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/psmisc/

Readline (5.0) - 940 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/gnureadline/

Sed (4.1.2) - 749 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/sed/

Shadow (4.0.4.1) - 795 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/shadow/

Sysklogd (1.4.1) - 80 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/sysklogd/

Sysvinit (2.85) - 91 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/sysvinit/

Tar (1.14) - 1,025 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/tar/

Tcl (8.4.7) - 3,363 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/tcltk/

Texinfo (4.7) - 1,385 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/texinfo/

Udev (030) - 374 KB:

ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/

Udev Permissions Configuration - 2 KB:

http://downloads.linuxfromscratch.org/udev-config-2.permissions

Udev Rules Configuration - 1 KB:

http://downloads.linuxfromscratch.org/udev-config-1.rules

Util-linux (2.12b) - 1,921 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/util-linux/

Vim (6.3) - 3,612 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/vim/

Vim (6.3) language files (optional) - 1,033 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/vim/

Zlib (1.2.1) - 277 KB:

http://freshmeat.net/projects/zlib/

Total size of these packages: 135 MB

Needed Patches

In addition to the packages, several patches are also required. These patches correct any mistakes in the packages that should be fixed by the maintainer. The patches also make small modifications to make the packages easier to work with. The following patches will be needed to build an LFS system:

Bash Display Wrap Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/bash-3.0-display_wrap-1.patch

Coreutils Suppress Uptime, Kill, Su Patch - 16 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/coreutils-5.2.1-suppress_uptime_kill_su-1.patch

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/coreutils-5.2.1-suppress_uptime_ kill_su-1.patch

Coreutils Uname Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/coreutils-5.2.1-uname-2.patch

Expect Spawn Patch - 6 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/expect-5.42.1-spawn-1.patch

Flex Brokenness Patch - 8 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/flex-2.5.31-debian_fixes-2.patch

GCC Linkonce Patch - 12 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/gcc-3.4.1-linkonce-1.patch

GCC No-Fixincludes Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/gcc-3.4.1-no_fixincludes-1.patch

GCC Specs Patch - 11 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/gcc-3.4.1-specs-1.patch

Inetutils Kernel Headers Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/inetutils-1.4.2-kernel_headers-1.patch

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/inetutils-1.4.2-kernel_headers- 1.patch

Inetutils No-Server-Man-Pages Patch - 4 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/inetutils-1.4.2-no_server_man_pages-1.patch

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/inetutils-1.4.2-no_server_man_ pages-1.patch

IPRoute2 Disable DB Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/iproute2-2.6.8_040823-remove_db-1.patch

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/iproute2-2.6.8_040823-remove_ db-1.patch

Man 80-Columns Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/man-1.5o-80cols-1.patch

Mktemp Tempfile Patch - 3 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/mktemp-1.5-add_tempfile-1.patch

Perl Libc Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/perl-5.8.5-libc-1.patch

Readline Display Wrap Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/readline-5.0-display_wrap-1.patch

Sysklogd Kernel Headers Patch - 3 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/sysklogd-1.4.1-kernel_headers-1.patch

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/sysklogd-1.4.1-kernel_headers- 1.patch

Sysklogd Signal Handling Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/sysklogd-1.4.1-signal-1.patch

Sysvinit /proc Title Length Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/sysvinit-2.85-proclen-1.patch

Texinfo Segfault Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/texinfo-4.7-segfault-1.patch

Util-Linux Sfdisk Patch - 1 KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/util-linux-2.12b-sfdisk-2.patch

Zlib Security Patch - 1KB:

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.0/zlib-1.2.1-security-1.patch

In addition to the above required patches, there exist a number of optional patches created by the LFS community. These optional patches solve minor problems or enable functionality that is not enabled by default. Feel free to peruse the patches database located at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/ and acquire any additional patches to suit the system needs.

Chapter 4. Final Preparations

About $LFS

Throughout this book, the environment variable LFS will be used several times. It is paramount that this variable is always defined. It should be set to the mount point chosen for the LFS partition. Check that the LFS variable is set up properly with:

echo $LFS

Make sure the output shows the path to the LFS partition's mount point, which is /mnt/lfs if the provided example was followed. If the output is incorrect, the variable can be set with:

export LFS=/mnt/lfs

Having this variable set is beneficial in that commands such as mkdir $LFS/tools can be typed literally. The shell will automatically replace “$LFS” with “/mnt/lfs” (or whatever the variable was set to) when it processes the command line.

Do not forget to check that $LFS is set whenever you leave and reenter the current working environment (as when doing a “su” to root or another user).

Creating the $LFS/tools Directory

All programs compiled in Chapter 5 will be installed under $LFS/tools to keep them separate from the programs compiled in Chapter 6. The programs compiled here are temporary tools and will not be a part of the final LFS system. By keeping these programs in a separate directory, they can easily be discarded later after their use. This also prevents these programs from ending up in the host production directories (easy to do by accident in Chapter 5).

Create the required directory by running the following as root:

mkdir $LFS/tools

The next step is to create a /tools symlink on the host system. This will point to the newly-created directory on the LFS partition. Run this command as root as well:

ln -s $LFS/tools /
[Note]

Note

The above command is correct. The ln command has a few syntactic variations, so be sure to check the info and man pages before reporting what you may think is an error.

The created symlink enables the toolchain to be compiled so that it always refers to /tools, meaning that the compiler, assembler, and linker will work both in this chapter (when we are still using some tools from the host) and in the next (when we are “chrooted” to the LFS partition).

Adding the LFS User

When logged in as user root, making a single mistake can damage or destroy a system. Therefore, we recommend building the packages in this chapter as an unprivileged user. You could use your own user name, but to make it easier to set up a clean work environment, create a new user called lfs as a member of a new group (also named lfs) and use this user during the installation process. As root, issue the following commands to add the new user:

groupadd lfs
useradd -s /bin/bash -g lfs -m -k /dev/null lfs

The meaning of the command line options:

-s /bin/bash

This makes bash the default shell for user lfs.

-g lfs

This option adds user lfs to group lfs.

-m

This creates a home directory for lfs.

-k /dev/null

This parameter prevents possible copying of files from a skeleton directory (default is /etc/skel) by changing the input location to the special null device.

lfs

This is the actual name for the created group and user.

To log in as lfs (as opposed to switching to user lfs when logged in as root, which does not require the lfs user to have a password), give lfs a password:

passwd lfs

Grant lfs full access to $LFS/tools by making lfs the directory owner:

chown lfs $LFS/tools

If a separate working directory was created as suggested, give user lfs ownership of this directory:

chown lfs $LFS/sources

Next, login as user lfs. This can be done via a virtual console, through a display manager, or with the following substitute user command:

su - lfs

The “-” instructs su to start a login shell as opposed to a non-login shell. The difference between these two types of shells can be found in detail in the Bash man and info pages.

Setting Up the Environment

Set up a good working environment by creating two new startup files for the bash shell. While logged in as user lfs, issue the following command to create a new .bash_profile:

cat > ~/.bash_profile << "EOF"
exec env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM PS1='\u:\w\$ ' /bin/bash
EOF

When logged on as user lfs, the initial shell is usually a login shell which reads the /etc/profile of the host (probably containing some settings and environment variables) and then .bash_profile. The exec env -i.../bin/bash command in the .bash_profile file replaces the running shell with a new one with a completely empty environment, except for the HOME, TERM, and PS1 variables. This ensures that no unwanted and potentially hazardous environment variables from the host system leak into the build environment. The technique used here achieves the goal of ensuring a clean environment.

The new instance of the shell is a non-login shell, which does not read the /etc/profile or .bash_profile files, but rather reads the .bashrc file instead. Create the .bashrc file now:

cat > ~/.bashrc << "EOF"
set +h
umask 022
LFS=/mnt/lfs
LC_ALL=POSIX
PATH=/tools/bin:/bin:/usr/bin
export LFS LC_ALL PATH
EOF

The set +h command turns off bash's hash function. Hashing is ordinarily a useful feature—bash uses a hash table to remember the full path of executable files to avoid searching the PATH time and again to find the same executable. However, the new tools should be used as soon as they are installed. By switching off the hash function, the shell will always search the PATH when a program is to be run. As such, the shell will find the newly compiled tools in $LFS/tools as soon as they are available without remembering a previous version of the same program in a different location.

Setting the user file-creation mask (umask) to 022 ensures that newly created files and directories are only writable by their owner, but are readable and executable by anyone (assuming default modes are used by the open(2) system call, new files will end up with permission mode 644 and directories with mode 755).

The LFS variable should be set to the chosen mount point.

The LC_ALL variable controls the localization of certain programs, making their messages follow the conventions of a specified country. If the host system uses a version of Glibc older than 2.2.4, having LC_ALL set to something other than “POSIX” or “C” (during this chapter) may cause issues if you exit the chroot environment and wish to return later. Setting LC_ALL to “POSIX” or “C” (the two are equivalent) ensures that everything will work as expected in the chroot environment.

By putting /tools/bin ahead of the standard PATH, all the programs installed in Chapter 5 are picked up by the shell immediately after their installation. This, combined with turning off hashing, limits the risk that old programs from the host are being used when they should not be used any longer.

Finally, to have the environment fully prepared for building the temporary tools, source the just-created user profile:

source ~/.bash_profile

About SBUs

Many people would like to know beforehand approximately how long it takes to compile and install each package. Because Linux From Scratch can be built on many different systems, it is impossible to provide accurate time estimates. The biggest package (Glibc) will take approximately 20 minutes on the fastest systems, but could take up to three days on slower systems! Instead of providing actual times, the Static Build Unit (SBU) measure will be used instead.

The SBU measure works as follows. The first package to be compiled from this book is the statically-linked Binutils in Chapter 5. The time it takes to compile this package is what will be referred to as the Static Build Unit or SBU. All other compile times will be expressed relative to this time.

For example, consider a package whose compilation time is 4.5 SBUs. This means that if a system took 10 minutes to compile and install the static Binutils, it will take approximately 45 minutes to build this example package. Fortunately, most build times are shorter than the one for Binutils.

Please note that if the system compiler on the host is GCC-2.x based, the SBUs listed may be somewhat understated. This is because the SBU is based on the very first package, compiled with the old GCC, while the rest of the system is compiled with the newer GCC-3.4.1 (which is known to be approximately 30 percent slower). SBUs are also not highly accurate for Symmetric Multi-Processor (SMP)-based machines.

To view actual timings for a number of specific machines, we recommend http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/~bdubbs/.

In general, SBUs are not very accurate because they depend on many factors, not just the GCC version. They are provided here to give an estimate of how long it might take to install a package, but the numbers can vary by as much as dozens of minutes in some cases.

About the Test Suites

Most packages provide a test suite. Running the test suite for a newly built package is a good idea because it can provide a “sanity check” indicating that everything compiled correctly. A test suite that passes its set of checks usually proves that the package is functioning as the developer intended. It does not, however, guarantee that the package is totally bug free.

Some test suites are more important than others. For example, the test suites for the core toolchain packages—GCC, Binutils, and Glibc—are of the utmost importance due to their central role in a properly functioning system. The test suites for GCC and Glibc can take a very long time to complete, especially on slower hardware, but are strongly recommended.

[Note]

Note

Experience has shown that there is little to be gained from running the test suites in Chapter 5. There can be no escaping the fact that the host system always exerts some influence on the tests in that chapter, often causing inexplicable failures. Because the tools built in Chapter 5 are temporary and eventually discarded, we do not recommend running the test suites in Chapter 5 for the average reader. The instructions for running those test suites are provided for the benefit of testers and developers, but they are strictly optional.

A common issue with running the test suites for Binutils and GCC is running out of pseudo terminals (PTYs). This can result in a high number of failing tests. This may happen for several reasons, but the most likely cause is that the host system does not have the devpts file system set up correctly. This issue is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 5.

Sometimes package test suites will give false failures. Consult the LFS Wiki at http://wiki.linuxfromscratch.org/ to verify that these failures are expected. This site is valid for all tests throughout this book.

Chapter 5. Constructing a Temporary System

Introduction

This chapter shows how to compile and install a minimal Linux system. This system will contain just enough tools to start constructing the final LFS system in Chapter 6 and allow a working environment with more user convenience than a minimum environment would.

There are two steps in building this minimal system. The first step is to build a new and host-independent toolchain (compiler, assembler, linker, libraries, and a few useful utilities). The second step uses this toolchain to build the other essential tools.

The files compiled in this chapter will be installed under the $LFS/tools directory to keep them separate from the files installed in the next chapter and the host production directories. Since the packages compiled here are temporary, we do not want them to pollute the soon-to-be LFS system.

Before issuing the build instructions for a package, the package should be unpacked as user lfs, and a cd into the created directory should be performed. The build instructions assume that the bash shell is in use.

Several of the packages are patched before compilation, but only when the patch is needed to circumvent a problem. A patch is often needed in both this and the next chapter, but sometimes in only one or the other. Therefore, do not be concerned if instructions for a downloaded patch seem to be missing. Warning messages about offset or fuzz may also be encountered when applying a patch. Do not worry about these warnings, as the patch was still successfully applied.

During the compilation of most packages, there will be several warnings that scroll by on the screen. These are normal and can safely be ignored. These warnings are as they appear—warnings about deprecated, but not invalid, use of the C or C++ syntax. C standards change fairly often, and some packages still use the older standard. This is not a problem, but does prompt the warning.

After installing each package, delete its source and build directories, unless specifically instructed otherwise. Deleting the sources saves space and prevents mis-configuration when the same package is reinstalled later. Only three of the packages need to retain the source and build directories in order for their contents to be used by later commands. Pay special attention to these reminders.

Check one last time that the LFS environment variable is set up properly:

echo $LFS

Make sure the output shows the path to the LFS partition's mount point, which is /mnt/lfs, using our example.

Host System Requirements

The host must be running at least a 2.6.2 kernel compiled with GCC-3.0 or higher. There are two main reasons for this high requirement. First, the Native POSIX Threading Library (NPTL) test suite will segfault if the host's kernel has not been compiled with GCC-3.0 or a later version. Secondly, the 2.6.2 or later version of the kernel is required for the use of Udev. Udev creates devices dynamically by reading from the sysfs file system. However, support for this filesystem has only recently been implemented in most of the kernel drivers. We must be sure that all critical system devices get created properly.

In order to determine whether the host kernel meets the requirements outlined above, run the following command:

cat /proc/version

This will produce output similar to:

Linux version 2.6.2 (user@host) (gcc version 3.4.0) #1
    Tue Apr 20 21:22:18 GMT 2004

If the results of the above command state that the host kernel was not compiled using a GCC-3.0 (or later) compiler, one will need to be compiled. The host system will then need to be rebooted to use the newly compiled kernel. Instructions for compiling the kernel and configuring the boot loader (assuming the host uses GRUB) are located in Chapter 8.

Toolchain Technical Notes

This section explains some of the rationale and technical details behind the overall build method. It is not essential to immediately understand everything in this section. Most of this information will be clearer after performing an actual build. This section can be referred back to at any time during the process.

The overall goal of Chapter 5 is to provide a temporary environment that can be chrooted into and from which can be produced a clean, trouble-free build of the target LFS system in Chapter 6. Along the way, we separate from the host system as much as possible, and in doing so, build a self-contained and self-hosted toolchain. It should be noted that the build process has been designed to minimize the risks for new readers and provide maximum educational value at the same time. In other words, more advanced techniques could be used to build the system.

[Important]

Important

Before continuing, be aware of the name of the working platform, often referred to as the target triplet. Many times, the target triplet will probably be i686-pc-linux-gnu. A simple way to determine the name of the target triplet is to run the config.guess script that comes with the source for many packages. Unpack the Binutils sources and run the script: ./config.guess and note the output.

Also be aware of the name of the platform's dynamic linker, often referred to as the dynamic loader (not to be confused with the standard linker ld that is part of Binutils). The dynamic linker provided by Glibc finds and loads the shared libraries needed by a program, prepares the program to run, and then runs it. The name of the dynamic linker will usually be ld-linux.so.2. On platforms that are less prevalent, the name might be ld.so.1, and newer 64 bit platforms might be named something else entirely. The name of the platform's dynamic linker can be determined by looking in the /lib directory on the host system. A sure-fire way to determine the name is to inspect a random binary from the host system by running: readelf -l <name of binary> | grep interpreter and noting the output. The authoritative reference covering all platforms is in the shlib-versions file in the root of the Glibc source tree.

Some key technical points of how the Chapter 5 build method works:

  • The process is similar in principle to cross-compiling, whereby tools installed in the same prefix work in cooperation, and thus utilize a little GNU “magic

  • Careful manipulation of the standard linker's library search path ensures programs are linked only against chosen libraries

  • Careful manipulation of gcc's specs file tell the compiler which target dynamic linker will be used

Binutils is installed first because the ./configure runs of both GCC and Glibc perform various feature tests on the assembler and linker to determine which software features to enable or disable. This is more important than one might first realize. An incorrectly configured GCC or Glibc can result in a subtly broken toolchain, where the impact of such breakage might not show up until near the end of the build of an entire distribution. A test suite failure will usually alert this error before too much additional work is performed.

Binutils installs its assembler and linker in two locations, /tools/bin and /tools/$TARGET_TRIPLET/bin. The tools in one location are hard linked to the other. An important facet of the linker is its library search order. Detailed information can be obtained from ld by passing it the --verbose flag. For example, an ld --verbose | grep SEARCH will illustrate the current search paths and their order. It shows which files are linked by ld by compiling a dummy program and passing the --verbose switch to the linker. For example, gcc dummy.c -Wl,--verbose 2>&1 | grep succeeded will show all the files successfully opened during the linking.

The next package installed is GCC. An example of what can be seen during its run of ./configure is:

checking what assembler to use... 
        /tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/bin/as
checking what linker to use... /tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/bin/ld

This is important for the reasons mentioned above. It also demonstrates that GCC's configure script does not search the PATH directories to find which tools to use. However, during the actual operation of gcc itself, the same search paths are not necessarily used. To find out which standard linker gcc will use, run: gcc -print-prog-name=ld.

Detailed information can be obtained from gcc by passing it the -v command line option while compiling a dummy program. For example, gcc -v dummy.c will show detailed information about the preprocessor, compilation, and assembly stages, including gcc's included search paths and their order.

The next package installed is Glibc. The most important considerations for building Glibc are the compiler, binary tools, and kernel headers. The compiler is generally not an issue since Glibc will always use the gcc found in a PATH directory. The binary tools and kernel headers can be a bit more complicated. Therefore, take no risks and use the available configure switches to enforce the correct selections. After the run of ./configure, check the contents of the config.make file in the glibc-build directory for all important details. Note the use of CC="gcc -B/tools/bin/" to control which binary tools are used and the use of the -nostdinc and -isystem flags to control the compiler's include search path. These items highlight an important aspect of the Glibc package—it is very self-sufficient in terms of its build machinery and generally does not rely on toolchain defaults.

After the Glibc installation, make some adjustments to ensure that searching and linking take place only within the /tools prefix. Install an adjusted ld, which has a hard-wired search path limited to /tools/lib. Then amend gcc's specs file to point to the new dynamic linker in /tools/lib. This last step is vital to the whole process. As mentioned above, a hard-wired path to a dynamic linker is embedded into every Executable and Link Format (ELF)-shared executable. This can be inspected by running: readelf -l <name of binary> | grep interpreter. Amending gcc's specs file ensures that every program compiled from here through the end of this chapter will use the new dynamic linker in /tools/lib.

The need to use the new dynamic linker is also the reason why the Specs patch is applied for the second pass of GCC. Failure to do so will result in the GCC programs themselves having the name of the dynamic linker from the host system's /lib directory embedded into them, which would defeat the goal of getting away from the host.

During the second pass of Binutils, we are able to utilize the --with-lib-path configure switch to control ld's library search path. From this point onwards, the core toolchain is self-contained and self-hosted. The remainder of the Chapter 5 packages all build against the new Glibc in /tools.

Upon entering the chroot environment in Chapter 6, the first major package to be installed is Glibc, due to its self-sufficient nature mentioned above. Once this Glibc is installed into /usr, perform a quick changeover of the toolchain defaults, then proceed in building the rest of the target LFS system.

Notes on Static Linking

Besides their specific task, most programs have to perform many common and sometimes trivial operations. These include allocating memory, searching directories, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching, arithmetic, and other tasks. Instead of obliging each program to reinvent the wheel, the GNU system provides all these basic functions in ready-made libraries. The major library on any Linux system is Glibc.

There are two primary ways of linking the functions from a library to a program that uses them—statically or dynamically. When a program is linked statically, the code of the used functions is included in the executable, resulting in a rather bulky program. When a program is dynamically linked, it includes a reference to the dynamic linker, the name of the library, and the name of the function, resulting in a much smaller executable. A third option is to use the programming interface of the dynamic linker (see the dlopen man page for more information).

Dynamic linking is the default on Linux and has three major advantages over static linking. First, only one copy of the executable library code is needed on the hard disk, instead of having multiple copies of the same code included in several programs, thus saving disk space. Second, when several programs use the same library function at the same time, only one copy of the function's code is required in core, thus saving memory space. Third, when a library function gets a bug fixed or is otherwise improved, only the one library needs to be recompiled instead of recompiling all programs that make use of the improved function.

If dynamic linking has several advantages, why then do we statically link the first two packages in this chapter? The reasons are threefold—historical, educational, and technical. The historical reason is that earlier versions of LFS statically linked every program in this chapter. Educationally, knowing the difference between static and dynamic linking is useful. The technical benefit is a gained element of independence from the host, meaning that those programs can be used independently of the host system. However, it is worth noting that an overall successful LFS build can still be achieved when the first two packages are built dynamically.

Binutils-2.15.91.0.2 - Pass 1

The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.

Approximate build time: 1.0 SBU

Required disk space: 194 MB

Binutils installation depends on: Bash, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of Binutils

It is important that Binutils be the first package compiled because both Glibc and GCC perform various tests on the available linker and assembler to determine which of their own features to enable.

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building Binutils.

The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils outside of the source directory in a dedicated build directory:

mkdir ../binutils-build
cd ../binutils-build
[Note]

Note

In order for the SBU values listed in the rest of the book to be of any use, measure the time it takes to build this package from the configuration, up to and including the first install. To achieve this easily, wrap the four commands in a time command like this: time { ./configure ... && ... && ... && make install; }.

Now prepare Binutils for compilation:

../binutils-2.15.91.0.2/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --disable-nls

The meaning of the configure options:

--prefix=/tools

This tells the configure script to prepare to install the Binutils programs in the /tools directory.

--disable-nls

This disables internationalization. This is not needed for the static programs, and NLS can cause problems when linking statically.

Continue with compiling the package:

make configure-host
make LDFLAGS="-all-static"

The meaning of the make parameters:

configure-host

This forces all subdirectories to be configured immediately. A statically-linked build will fail without it. Use this option to work around the problem.

LDFLAGS="-all-static"

This tells the linker that all Binutils programs should be linked statically. However, strictly speaking, "-all-static" is passed to the libtool program, which then passes "-static" to the linker.

Compilation is now complete. Ordinarily we would now run the test suite, but at this early stage the test suite framework (Tcl, Expect, and DejaGNU) is not yet in place. The benefits of running the tests at this point are minimal since the programs from this first pass will soon be replaced by those from the second.

Install the package:

make install

Next, prepare the linker for the “Adjusting” phase later on:

make -C ld clean
make -C ld LDFLAGS="-all-static" LIB_PATH=/tools/lib

The meaning of the make parameters:

-C ld clean

This tells the make program to remove all compiled files in the ld subdirectory.

-C ld LDFLAGS="-all-static" LIB_PATH=/tools/lib

This option rebuilds everything in the ld subdirectory. Specifying the LIB_PATH Makefile variable on the command line allows us to override the default value and point it to the temporary tools location. The value of this variable specifies the linker's default library search path. This preparation is used later in the chapter.

[Warning]

Warning

Do not remove the Binutils build and source directories yet. These will be needed again in their current state later in this chapter.

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Binutils”

GCC-3.4.1 - Pass 1

The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.

Approximate build time: 4.4 SBU

Required disk space: 300 MB

GCC installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Findutils, Gawk, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of GCC

Unpack only the gcc-core tarball because neither the C++ compiler nor the test suite will be needed here.

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building GCC.

The GCC documentation recommends building GCC outside of the source directory in a dedicated build directory:

mkdir ../gcc-build
cd ../gcc-build

Prepare GCC for compilation:

../gcc-3.4.1/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --libexecdir=/tools/lib --with-local-prefix=/tools \
    --disable-nls --enable-shared --enable-languages=c

The meaning of the configure options:

--with-local-prefix=/tools

The purpose of this switch is to remove /usr/local/include from gcc's include search path. This is not absolutely essential, however, it helps to minimize the influence of the host system.

--enable-shared

This switch may seem counter-intuitive at first. However, this switch allows the building of libgcc_s.so.1 and libgcc_eh.a, and having libgcc_eh.a available ensures that the configure script for Glibc (the next package we compile) produces the proper results. Note that the GCC binaries will still be linked statically because this is controlled by the -static value of the BOOT_LDFLAGS variable in the next step.

--enable-languages=c

This option ensures that only the C compiler is built. This option is only needed when you have downloaded and unpacked the full GCC tarball, as opposed to just the gcc-core tarball.

Continue with compiling the package:

make BOOT_LDFLAGS="-static" bootstrap

The meaning of the make parameters:

BOOT_LDFLAGS="-static"

This tells GCC to link its programs statically.

bootstrap

This target does not just compile GCC, but compiles it several times. It uses the programs compiled in a first round to compile itself a second time, and then again a third time. It then compares these second and third compiles to make sure it can reproduce itself flawlessly. This also implies that it was compiled correctly.

Compilation is now complete. At this point, the test suite would normally be run, but, as mentioned before, the test suite framework is not in place yet. The benefits of running the tests at this point are minimal since the programs from this first pass will soon be replaced.

Install the package:

make install

As a finishing touch, create a symlink. Many programs and scripts run cc instead of gcc, which is used to keep programs generic and therefore usable on all kinds of UNIX systems where the GNU C compiler is not always installed. Running cc leaves the system administrator free to decide which C compiler to install.

ln -s gcc /tools/bin/cc

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of GCC”

Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.8.1

The Linux-Libc-Headers package contains the “sanitized” kernel headers.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 22 MB

Linux-Libc-Headers installation depends on: Coreutils

Installation of Linux-Libc-Headers

For years it has been common practice to use “raw” kernel headers (straight from a kernel tarball) in /usr/include, but over the last few years, the kernel developers have taken a strong stance that this should not be done. This gave birth to the Linux-Libc-Headers Project, which was designed to maintain an Application Programming Interface (API) stable version of the Linux headers.

Install the header files:

cp -R include/asm-i386 /tools/include/asm
cp -R include/linux /tools/include

If your architecture is not i386 (compatible), adjust the first command accordingly.

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Linux-Libc-Headers”

Linux-2.6.8.1 Headers

The Linux kernel package contains the kernel source as well as the header files used by Glibc.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 186 MB

Linux Headers installation depends on: Coreutils and Make

Installation of the Kernel Headers

Because some packages need to refer to the kernel header files, now is a good time to unpack the kernel archive, set it up, and copy the required files to a place where gcc can locate them later.

Prepare for the header installation with:

make mrproper

This ensures that the kernel tree is absolutely clean. It is recommended that this command be issued prior to each kernel compilation. Do not assume that the source tree is automatically clean after un-tarring.

Create the include/linux/version.h file:

make include/linux/version.h

Create the platform-specific include/asm symlink:

make include/asm

Install the platform-specific header files:

mkdir /tools/glibc-kernheaders
cp -HR include/asm /tools/glibc-kernheaders
cp -R include/asm-generic /tools/glibc-kernheaders

Finally, install the cross-platform kernel header files:

cp -R include/linux /tools/glibc-kernheaders

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Linux”

Glibc-2.3.4-20040701

The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching, arithmetic, and so on.

Approximate build time: 11.8 SBU

Required disk space: 800 MB

Glibc installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of Glibc

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building Glibc.

It should be noted that compiling Glibc in any way other than the method suggested in this book puts the stability of the system at risk.

The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc outside of the source directory in a dedicated build directory:

mkdir ../glibc-build
cd ../glibc-build

Next, prepare Glibc for compilation:

../glibc-2.3.4-20040701/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --disable-profile --enable-add-ons=nptl --with-tls \
    --with-__thread --enable-kernel=2.6.0 \
    --with-binutils=/tools/bin --without-gd --without-cvs \
    --with-headers=/tools/glibc-kernheaders

The meaning of the configure options:

--disable-profile

This builds the libraries without profiling information. Omit this option if profiling on the temporary tools is necessary.

--enable-add-ons=nptl

This tells Glibc to use the NPTL add-on as its threading library.

--with-tls

This tells Glibc to include support for Thread-Local Storage (TLS). This is required in order for NPTL to work.

--with-__thread

This option tells Glibc to include thread support. It is required in order for TLS to be properly compiled.

--enable-kernel=2.6.0

This tells Glibc to compile the library with support for 2.6.x Linux kernels.

--with-binutils=/tools/bin

While not required, this switch ensures that there are no errors pertaining to which Binutils programs get used during the Glibc build.

--without-gd

This prevents the build of the memusagestat program, which insists on linking against the host's libraries (libgd, libpng, libz, etc.).

--without-cvs

This prevents the Makefile files from attempting automatic CVS checkouts when using a CVS snapshot. While this command is not required, it is recommended because it suppresses an annoying, but harmless, warning about a missing autoconf program.

--with-headers=/tools/glibc-kernheaders

This tells Glibc to compile itself against the “raw” kernel headers, so that it knows exactly what features the kernel has and can optimize itself accordingly.

During this stage the following warning might appear:

configure: WARNING:
*** These auxiliary programs are missing or 
*** incompatible versions: msgfmt
*** some features will be disabled.
*** Check the INSTALL file for required versions.

The missing or incompatible msgfmt program is generally harmless, but it can sometimes cause issues when running the test suite. This msgfmt program is part of the Gettext package which the host distribution should provide. If msgfmt is present but deemed incompatible, upgrade the host system's Gettext package or continue without it and see if the test suite runs without problems regardless.

Compile the package:

make

Compilation is now complete. As mentioned earlier, running the test suites for the temporary tools installed in this chapter is not mandatory. To run the Glibc test suite (if desired), the following command will do so:

make check

For a discussion of test failures that are of particular importance, please see the section called “Glibc-2.3.4-20040701”

In this chapter, some tests can be adversely effected by existing tools or environmental issues on the host system. Glibc test suite failures in this chapter are typically not worrisome. The Glibc installed in Chapter 6 is the one that will ultimately end up being used, so that is the one that needs to pass most tests (even in Chapter 6, some failures could still occur, for example, with the math tests).

When experiencing a failure, make a note of it, then continue by reissuing the make check command. The test suite should pick up where it left off and continue. This stop-start sequence can be circumvented by issuing a make -k check command. If using this option, be sure to log the output so that the log file can be examined for failures later.

The install stage of Glibc will issue a harmless warning at the end about the absence of /tools/etc/ld.so.conf. Prevent this warning with:

mkdir /tools/etc
touch /tools/etc/ld.so.conf

Install the package:

make install

Different countries and cultures have varying conventions for how to communicate. These conventions range from the format for representing dates and times to more complex issues, such as the language spoken. The “internationalization” of GNU programs works by locale.

[Note]

Note

If the test suites are not being run in this chapter (as per the recommendation), there is no need to install the locales now. The appropriate locales will be installed in the next chapter.

To install the Glibc locales anyway, use the following command:

make localedata/install-locales

To save time, an alternative to running the previous command (which generates and installs every locale Glibc is aware of) is to install only those locales that are wanted and needed. This can be achieved by using the localedef command. Information on this command is located in the INSTALL file in the Glibc source. However, there are a number of locales that are essential in order for the tests of future packages to pass, in particular, the libstdc++ tests from GCC. The following instructions, instead of the install-locales target used above, will install the minimum set of locales necessary for the tests to run successfully:

mkdir -p /tools/lib/locale
localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Glibc”

Adjusting the Toolchain

Now that the temporary C libraries have been installed, all tools compiled in the rest of this chapter should be linked against these libraries. In order to accomplish this, the linker and the compiler's specs file need to be adjusted.

The linker, adjusted at the end of the first pass of Binutils, is installed by running the following command from within the binutils-build directory:

make -C ld install

From this point onwards, everything will link only against the libraries in /tools/lib.

[Note]

Note

If the earlier warning to retain the Binutils source and build directories from the first pass was missed, ignore the above command. This results in a small chance that the subsequent testing programs will link against libraries on the host. This is not ideal, but it is not a major problem. The situation is corrected when the second pass of Binutils is installed later.

Now that the adjusted linker is installed, the Binutils build and source directories should be removed.

The next task is to amend the GCC specs file so that it points to the new dynamic linker. A simple sed script will accomplish this:

SPECFILE=`gcc --print-file specs` &&
sed 's@ /lib/ld-linux.so.2@ /tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2@g' \
    $SPECFILE > tempspecfile &&
mv -f tempspecfile $SPECFILE &&
unset SPECFILE

It is recommended that the above command be copy-and-pasted in order to ensure accuracy. Alternatively, the specs file can be edited by hand. This is done by replacing every occurrence of “/lib/ld-linux.so.2” with “/tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2

Be sure to visually inspect the specs file in order to verify the intended changes have been made.

[Important]

Important

If working on a platform where the name of the dynamic linker is something other than ld-linux.so.2, replace “ld-linux.so.2” with the name of the platform's dynamic linker in the above commands. Refer back to the section called “Toolchain Technical Notes” if necessary.

There is a possibility that some include files from the host system have found their way into GCC's private include dir. This can happen as a result of GCC's “fixincludes” process, which runs as part of the GCC build. This is explained in more detail later in this chapter. Run the following command to eliminate this possibility:

rm -f /tools/lib/gcc/*/*/include/{pthread.h,bits/sigthread.h}
[Caution]

Caution

At this point, it is imperative to stop and ensure that the basic functions (compiling and linking) of the new toolchain are working as expected. To perform a sanity check, run the following commands:

echo 'main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /tools'

If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors, and the output of the last command will be of the form:

[Requesting program interpreter: 
    /tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2]

Note that /tools/lib appears as the prefix of the dynamic linker.

If the output is not shown as above or there was no output at all, then something is wrong. Investigate and retrace the steps to find out where the problem is and correct it. This issue must be resolved before continuing on. First, perform the sanity check again, using gcc instead of cc. If this works, then the /tools/bin/cc symlink is missing. Revisit the section called “GCC-3.4.1 - Pass 1” and install the symlink. Next, ensure that the PATH is correct. This can be checked by running echo $PATH and verifying that /tools/bin is at the head of the list. If the PATH is wrong it could mean that you are not logged in as user lfs or that something went wrong back in the section called “Setting Up the Environment” Another option is that something may have gone wrong with the specs file amendment above. In this case, redo the specs file amendment, being careful to copy-and-paste the commands.

Once all is well, clean up the test files:

rm dummy.c a.out

Tcl-8.4.7

The Tcl package contains the Tool Command Language.

Approximate build time: 0.9 SBU

Required disk space: 23 MB

Tcl installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Tcl

This package and the next two (Expect and DejaGNU) are installed to support running the test suites for GCC and Binutils. Installing three packages for testing purposes may seem excessive, but it is very reassuring, if not essential, to know that the most important tools are working properly. Even if the test suites are not run in this chapter (they are not mandatory), these packages are required to run the test suites in Chapter 6.

Prepare Tcl for compilation:

cd unix
./configure --prefix=/tools

Build the package:

make

To test the results, issue: TZ=UTC make test. The Tcl test suite is known to experience failures under certain host conditions that are not fully understood. Therefore, test suite failures here are not surprising, and are not considered critical. The TZ=UTC parameter sets the time zone to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), also known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), but only for the duration of the test suite run. This ensures that the clock tests are exercised correctly. Details on the TZ environment variable is provided in Chapter 7.

Install the package:

make install
[Warning]

Warning

Do not remove the tcl8.4.7 source directory yet, as the next package will need its internal headers.

Now make a necessary symbolic link:

ln -s tclsh8.4 /tools/bin/tclsh

Contents of Tcl

Installed programs: tclsh (link to tclsh8.4) and tclsh8.4

Installed library: libtcl8.4.so

Short Descriptions

tclsh8.4

The Tcl command shell

tclsh

A link to tclsh8.4

libtcl8.4.so

The Tcl library

Expect-5.42.1

The Expect package contains a program for carrying out scripted dialogues with other interactive programs.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 3.9 MB

Expect installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Tcl

Installation of Expect

First, fix a bug that can result in false failures during the GCC test suite run:

patch -Np1 -i ../expect-5.42.1-spawn-1.patch

Now prepare Expect for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools --with-tcl=/tools/lib --with-x=no

The meaning of the configure options:

--with-tcl=/tools/lib

This ensures that the configure script finds the Tcl installation in the temporary tools location instead of possibly locating an existing one on the host system.

--with-x=no

This tells the configure script not to search for Tk (the Tcl GUI component) or the X Window System libraries, both of which may reside on the host system.

Build the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make test. Note that the Expect test suite is known to experience failures under certain host conditions that are not within our control. Therefore, test suite failures here are not surprising and are not considered critical.

Install the package:

make SCRIPTS="" install

The meaning of the make parameter:

SCRIPTS=""

This prevents installation of the supplementary expect scripts, which are not needed.

The source directories of both Tcl and Expect can now be removed.

Contents of Expect

Installed program: expect

Installed library: libexpect-5.42.a

Short Descriptions

expect

Communicates with other interactive programs according to a script

libexpect-5.42.a

Contains functions that allow Expect to be used as a Tcl extension or to be used directly from C or C++ (without Tcl)

DejaGNU-1.4.4

The DejaGNU package contains a framework for testing other programs.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 8.6 MB

DejaGNU installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of DejaGNU

Prepare DejaGNU for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Build and install the package:

make install

Contents of DejaGNU

Installed program: runtest

Short Descriptions

runtest

A wrapper script that locates the proper expect shell and then runs DejaGNU

GCC-3.4.1 - Pass 2

Approximate build time: 11.0 SBU

Required disk space: 274 MB

GCC installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Findutils, Gawk, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

Re-installation of GCC

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building GCC.

The tools required to test GCC and Binutils—Tcl, Expect and DejaGNU—are installed now. GCC and Binutils can now be rebuilt, linking them against the new Glibc and testing them properly (if running the test suites in this chapter). Please note that these test suites are highly dependent on properly functioning PTYs which are provided by the host. PTYs are most commonly implemented via the devpts file system. Check to see if the host system is set up correctly in this regard by performing a quick test:

expect -c "spawn ls"

The response might be:

The system has no more ptys.  
Ask your system administrator to create more.

If the above message is received, the host does not have its PTYs set up properly. In this case, there is no point in running the test suites for GCC and Binutils until this issue is resolved. Please consult the LFS Wiki at http://wiki.linuxfromscratch.org/ for more information on how to get PTYs working.

Because the C and the C++ compilers will be built, unpack both the core and the g++ tarballs (as well as test suite, if you want to run the tests). By unpacking them in the working directory, they will all unfold into a single gcc-3.4.1/ subdirectory.

First correct a known problem and make an essential adjustment:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.1-no_fixincludes-1.patch
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.1-specs-1.patch

The first patch disables the GCC fixincludes script. This was briefly mentioned earlier, but a more in-depth explanation of the fixincludes process is warranted here. Under normal circumstances, the GCC fixincludes script scans the system for header files that need to be fixed. It might find that some Glibc header files on the host system need to be fixed, and will fix them and put them in the GCC private include directory. In Chapter 6, after the newer Glibc has been installed, this private include directory will be searched before the system include directory. This may result in GCC finding the fixed headers from the host system, which most likely will not match the Glibc version used for the LFS system.

The second patch changes GCC's default location of the dynamic linker (typically ld-linux.so.2). It also removes /usr/include from GCC's include search path. Patching now rather than adjusting the specs file after installation ensures that the new dynamic linker is used during the actual build of GCC. That is, all of the final (and temporary) binaries created during the build will link against the new Glibc.

[Important]

Important

The above patches are critical in ensuring a successful overall build. Do not forget to apply them.

Create a separate build directory again:

mkdir ../gcc-build
cd ../gcc-build

Before starting to build GCC, remember to unset any environment variables that override the default optimization flags.

Now prepare GCC for compilation:

../gcc-3.4.1/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --libexecdir=/tools/lib --with-local-prefix=/tools \
    --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-shared \
    --enable-threads=posix --enable-__cxa_atexit \
    --enable-languages=c,c++ --disable-libstdcxx-pch

The meaning of the new configure options:

--enable-clocale=gnu

This option ensures the correct locale model is selected for the C++ libraries under all circumstances. If the configure script finds the de_DE locale installed, it will select the correct gnu locale model. However, if the de_DE locale is not installed, there is the risk of building Application Binary Interface (ABI)-incompatible C++ libraries because the incorrect generic locale model may be selected.

--enable-threads=posix

This enables C++ exception handling for multi-threaded code.

--enable-__cxa_atexit

This option allows use of __cxa_atexit, rather than atexit, to register C++ destructors for local statics and global objects. This option is essential for fully standards-compliant handling of destructors. It also effects the C++ ABI, and therefore results in C++ shared libraries and C++ programs that are interoperable with other Linux distributions.

--enable-languages=c,c++

This option ensures that both the C and C++ compilers are built.

--disable-libstdcxx-pch

Do not build the pre-compiled header (PCH) for libstdc++. It takes up a lot of space, and we have no use for it.

Compile the package:

make

There is no need to use the bootstrap target now because the compiler being used to compile this GCC was built from the exact same version of the GCC sources used earlier.

Compilation is now complete. As previously mentioned, running the test suites for the temporary tools compiled in this chapter is not mandatory. To run the GCC test suite anyway, use the following command:

make -k check

The -k flag is used to make the test suite run through to completion and not stop at the first failure. The GCC test suite is very comprehensive and is almost guaranteed to generate a few failures. To receive a summary of the test suite results, run:

../gcc-3.4.1/contrib/test_summary

For only the summaries, pipe the output through grep -A7 Summ.

Results can be compared to those posted to the gcc-testresults mailing list to see similar configurations to the one being built. For an example of how current GCC-3.4.1 should look on i686-pc-linux-gnu, see http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/gcc-testresults/2004-07/msg00179.html.

A few unexpected failures cannot always be avoided. The GCC developers are usually aware of these issues, but have not resolved them yet. Unless the test results are vastly different from those at the above URL, it is safe to continue.

Install the package:

make install
[Note]

Note

At this point it is strongly recommended to repeat the sanity check we performed earlier in this chapter. Refer back to the section called “Adjusting the Toolchain” and repeat the test compilation. If the result is wrong, the most likely reason is that the GCC Specs patch was not properly applied.

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of GCC”

Binutils-2.15.91.0.2 - Pass 2

The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.

Approximate build time: 1.5 SBU

Required disk space: 108 MB

Binutils installation depends on: Bash, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

Re-installation of Binutils

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building Binutils.

Create a separate build directory again:

mkdir ../binutils-build
cd ../binutils-build

Prepare Binutils for compilation:

../binutils-2.15.91.0.2/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --enable-shared --with-lib-path=/tools/lib

The meaning of the new configure option:

--with-lib-path=/tools/lib

This tells the configure script to specify the library search path during the compilation of Binutils, resulting in /tools/lib being passed to the linker. This prevents the linker from searching through library directories on the host.

Compile the package:

make

Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here in this chapter. To run the Binutils test suite anyway, issue the following command:

make check

Install the package:

make install

Now prepare the linker for the “Re-adjusting” phase in the next chapter:

make -C ld clean
make -C ld LIB_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib
[Warning]

Warning

Do not remove the Binutils source and build directories yet. These directories will be needed again in the next chapter in their current state.

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Binutils”

Gawk-3.1.4

The Gawk package contains programs for manipulating text files.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 17 MB

Gawk installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Gawk

Prepare Gawk for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results (not necessary), issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Gawk”

Coreutils-5.2.1

The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the basic system characteristics.

Approximate build time: 0.9 SBU

Required disk space: 69 MB

Coreutils installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, and Sed

Installation of Coreutils

Prepare Coreutils for compilation:

DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION=199209 ./configure --prefix=/tools

This package has an issue when compiled against versions of Glibc later than 2.3.2. Some of the Coreutils utilities (such as head, tail, and sort) will reject their traditional syntax, a syntax that has been in use for approximately 30 years. This old syntax is so pervasive that compatibility should be preserved until the many places where it is used can be updated. Backwards compatibility is achieved by setting the DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION environment variable to “199209” in the above command. If you do not want Coreutils to be backwards compatible with the traditional syntax, then omit setting the DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION environment variable. It is important to remember that doing so will have consequences, including the need to patch the many packages that still use the old syntax. Therefore, it is recommended that the instructions be followed exactly as given above.

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check. The RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes parameter tells the test suite to run several additional tests that are considered relatively expensive (in terms of CPU power and memory usage) on some platforms, but generally are not a problem on Linux.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Coreutils”

Bzip2-1.0.2

The Bzip2 package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. Text files yield a much better compression than with the traditional gzip.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 2.5 MB

Bzip2 installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, and Make

Installation of Bzip2

The Bzip2 package does not contain a configure script. Compile it with:

make

Install the package:

make PREFIX=/tools install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Bzip2”

Gzip-1.3.5

The Gzip package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 2.6 MB

Gzip installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Gzip

Prepare Gzip for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Gzip”

Diffutils-2.8.1

The Diffutils package contains programs that show the differences between files or directories.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 7.5 MB

Diffutils installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Diffutils

Prepare Diffutils for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Diffutils”

Findutils-4.1.20

The Findutils package contains programs to find files. Processes are provided to recursively search through a directory tree and to create, maintain, and search a database (often faster than the recursive find, but unreliable if the database has not been recently updated).

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 7.6 MB

Findutils installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make and Sed

Installation of Findutils

Prepare Findutils for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Findutils”

Make-3.80

The Make package contains a program for compiling large packages.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 8.8 MB

Make installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, and Sed

Installation of Make

Prepare Make for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Make”

Grep-2.5.1

The Grep package contains programs for searching through files.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 5.8 MB

Grep installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Make, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of Grep

Prepare Grep for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools \
    --disable-perl-regexp --with-included-regex

The meaning of the configure options:

--disable-perl-regexp

This makes sure that the grep program does not get linked against a Perl Compatible Regular Expression (PCRE) library that may be present on the host and would not be available once we enter the chroot environment.

--with-included-regex

This ensures that Grep uses its internal regular expression code. Without this switch, Grep will use the code from Glibc, which is known to be buggy.

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Grep”

Sed-4.1.2

The Sed package contains a stream editor.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 5.2 MB

Sed installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Texinfo

Installation of Sed

Prepare Sed for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Sed”

Gettext-0.14.1

The Gettext package contains utilities for internationalization and localization. These allow programs to be compiled with NLS, enabling them to output messages in the user's native language.

Approximate build time: 0.5 SBU

Required disk space: 55 MB

Gettext installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Gettext

Prepare Gettext for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools --disable-libasprintf \
    --disable-csharp

The meaning of the configure options:

--disable-libasprintf

This flag tells Gettext not to build the asprintf library. Because nothing in this chapter or the next requires this library and Gettext gets rebuilt later, exclude it to save time and space.

--disable-csharp

This tells Gettext not to use a C# compiler, even if a C# compiler is installed on the host. This needs to be done because once we enter the chroot environment, C# will no longer be available.

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check. This takes quite some time, around 7 SBUs. The Gettext test suite is known to experience failures under certain host conditions, for example when it finds a Java compiler on the host. An experimental patch to disable Java is available from the LFS Patches project at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Gettext”

Ncurses-5.4

The Ncurses package contains libraries for terminal-independent handling of character screens.

Approximate build time: 0.7 SBU

Required disk space: 26 MB

Ncurses installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Ncurses

Prepare Ncurses for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools --with-shared \
    --without-debug --without-ada --enable-overwrite

The meaning of the configure options:

--without-ada

This tells Ncurses not to build its Ada bindings, even if an Ada compiler is installed on the host. This needs to be done because once we enter the chroot environment, Ada will no longer be available.

--enable-overwrite

This tells Ncurses to install its header files into /tools/include, instead of /tools/include/ncurses, to ensure that other packages can find the Ncurses headers successfully.

Compile the package:

make

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Ncurses”

Patch-2.5.4

The Patch package contains a program for modifying files.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 1.9 MB

Patch installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Patch

Prepare Patch for compilation:

CPPFLAGS=-D_GNU_SOURCE ./configure --prefix=/tools

The preprocessor flag -D_GNU_SOURCE is only needed on the PowerPC platform. It can be left out on other architectures.

Compile the package:

make

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Patch”

Tar-1.14

The Tar package contains an archiving program.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 10 MB

Tar installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Tar

Prepare Tar for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Tar”

Texinfo-4.7

The Texinfo package contains programs for reading, writing, and converting Info documents.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 16 MB

Texinfo installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

Installation of Texinfo

Prepare Texinfo for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Texinfo”

Bash-3.0

The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.

Approximate build time: 1.2 SBU

Required disk space: 27 MB

Bash installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed.

Installation of Bash

Prepare Bash for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools --without-bash-malloc

The meaning of the configure option:

--without-bash-malloc

This options turns off the use of Bash's memory allocation (malloc) function which is known to cause segmentation faults. By turning this option off, Bash will use the malloc functions from Glibc which are more stable.

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make tests.

Install the package:

make install

Make a link for the programs that use sh for a shell:

ln -s bash /tools/bin/sh

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Bash”

M4-1.4.2

The M4 package contains a macro processor.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 3.0 MB

M4 installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, and Sed

Installation of M4

Prepare M4 for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of M4”

Bison-1.875a

The Bison package contains a parser generator.

Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU

Required disk space: 10.6 MB

Bison installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

Installation of Bison

Prepare Bison for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Bison”

Flex-2.5.31

The Flex package contains a utility for generating programs that recognize patterns in text.

Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU

Required disk space: 10.6 MB

Flex installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

Installation of Flex

Flex contains several known bugs. These can be fixed with the following patch:

patch -Np1 -i ../flex-2.5.31-debian_fixes-2.patch

The GNU autotools will detect that the Flex source code has been modified by the previous patch and tries to update the manual page accordingly. This does not work on many systems, and the default page is fine, so make sure it does not get regenerated:

touch doc/flex.1

Now prepare Flex for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/tools

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Flex”

Util-linux-2.12b

The Util-linux package contains miscellaneous utility programs. Among them are utilities for handling file systems, consoles, partitions, and messages.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 16 MB

Util-linux installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, Sed, and Zlib

Installation of Util-linux

Util-linux does not use the freshly installed headers and libraries from the /tools directory. This is fixed by altering the configure script:

sed -i 's@/usr/include@/tools/include@g' configure

Prepare Util-linux for compilation:

./configure

Compile some support routines:

make -C lib

Since only a couple of the utilities contained in this package are needed, build only those:

make -C mount mount umount
make -C text-utils more

This package does not come with a test suite.

Copy these programs to the temporary tools directory:

cp mount/{,u}mount text-utils/more /tools/bin

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Util-linux”

Perl-5.8.5

The Perl package contains the Practical Extraction and Report Language.

Approximate build time: 0.8 SBU

Required disk space: 74 MB

Perl installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Perl

First adapt some hard-wired paths to the C library by applying the following patch:

patch -Np1 -i ../perl-5.8.5-libc-1.patch

Prepare Perl for compilation (make sure to get the 'IO Fcntl POSIX' part of the command correct—they are all letters):

./configure.gnu --prefix=/tools -Dstatic_ext='IO Fcntl POSIX'

The meaning of the configure option:

-Dstatic_ext='IO Fcntl POSIX'

This tells Perl to build the minimum set of static extensions needed for installing and testing the Coreutils package in the next chapter.

Compile only the required tools:

make perl utilities

Although Perl comes with a test suite, it is not recommended to run it at this point. Only part of Perl was built and running make test now will cause the rest of Perl to be built as well, which is unnecessary at this point. The test suite can be run in the next chapter if desired.

Copy these tools and their libraries:

cp perl pod/pod2man /tools/bin
mkdir -p /tools/lib/perl5/5.8.5
cp -R lib/* /tools/lib/perl5/5.8.5

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Perl”

Udev-030

The Udev package contains programs for dynamic creation of device nodes.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 5.2 MB

Udev installation depends on: Coreutils and Make

Installation of Udev

The udevstart program hardcodes the path to the udev program in itself, which would cause issues since udev was installed in a non-standard location. Fix this by running the following:

sed -i 's@/sbin/udev@/tools/sbin/udev@g' udevstart.c

Also, ensure that udev knows the correct location to look for its configuration files:

sed -i 's@/etc@/tools/etc@g' etc/udev/udev.conf.in

Now compile Udev:

make prefix=/tools etcdir=/tools/etc

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make DESTDIR=/tools udevdir=/dev install

Udev's configuration is far from ideal by default, so install LFS-specific configuration files here:

cp ../udev-config-2.permissions \
    /tools/etc/udev/permissions.d/00-lfs.permissions
cp ../udev-config-1.rules /tools/etc/udev/rules.d/00-lfs.rules

Details on this package are located in the section called “Contents of Udev”

Stripping

The steps in this section are optional, but if the LFS partition is rather small, it is beneficial to learn that unnecessary items can be removed. The executables and libraries built so far contain about 130 MB of unneeded debugging symbols. Remove those symbols with:

strip --strip-debug /tools/lib/*
strip --strip-unneeded /tools/{,s}bin/*

The last of the above commands will skip some twenty files, reporting that it does not recognize their file format. Most of these are scripts instead of binaries.

Take care not to use --strip-unneeded on the libraries. The static ones would be destroyed and the toolchain packages would need to be built all over again.

To save another 30 MB, remove the documentation:

rm -rf /tools/{doc,info,man}

There will now be at least 850 MB of free space on the LFS file system that can be used to build and install Glibc in the next phase. If you can build and install Glibc, you can build and install the rest too.

Building the LFS System

Table of Contents

Chapter 6. Installing Basic System Software

Introduction

In this chapter, we enter the building site and start constructing the LFS system in earnest. That is, we chroot into the temporary mini Linux system, make a few final preparations, and then begin installing the packages.

The installation of this software is straightforward. Although in many cases the installation instructions could be made shorter and more generic, we have opted to provide the full instructions for every package to minimize the possibilities for mistakes. The key to learning what makes a Linux system work is to know what each package is used for and why the user (or the system) needs it. For every installed package, a summary of its contents is given, followed by concise descriptions of each program and library the package installed.

If using the compiler optimizations provided in this chapter, please review the optimization hint at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/optimization.txt. Compiler optimizations can make a program run slightly faster, but they may also cause compilation difficulties and problems when running the program. If a package refuses to compile when using optimization, try to compile it without optimization and see if that fixes the problem. Even if the package does compile when using optimization, there is the risk it may have been compiled incorrectly because of the complex interactions between the code and build tools. The small potential gains achieved in using compiler optimizations are often outweighed by the risks. First-time builders of LFS are encouraged to build without custom optimizations. The subsequent system will still run very fast and be stable at the same time.

The order that packages are installed in this chapter needs to be strictly followed to ensure that no program accidentally acquires a path referring to /tools hard-wired into it. For the same reason, do not compile packages in parallel. Compiling in parallel may save time (especially on dual-CPU machines), but it could result in a program containing a hard-wired path to /tools, which will cause the program to stop working when that directory is removed.

Before the installation instructions, each installation page provides information about the package, including a concise description of what it contains, approximately how long it will take to build, how much disk space is required during this building process, and any other packages needed to successfully build the package. Following the installation instructions, there is a list of programs and libraries (along with brief descriptions of these) that the package installs.

To keep track of which package installs particular files, a package manager can be used. For a general overview of different styles of package managers, please refer to http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/introduction/important.html. For a package management method specifically geared towards LFS, we recommend http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/more_control_and_pkg_man.txt.

[Note]

Note

The remainder of this book is to be performed while logged in as user root and no longer as user lfs.

Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems

Various file systems exported by the kernel do not exist on the hard drive, but are used to communicate to and from the kernel itself.

Begin by creating directories onto which the file systems will be mounted:

mkdir -p $LFS/{proc,sys}

Now mount the file systems:

mount -t proc proc $LFS/proc
mount -t sysfs sysfs $LFS/sys

Remember that if for any reason you stop working on the LFS system and start again later, it is important to check that these file systems are mounted again before entering the chroot environment.

Additional file systems will soon be mounted from within the chroot environment. To keep the host up to date, perform a “fake mount” for each of these now:

mount -f -t ramfs ramfs $LFS/dev
mount -f -t tmpfs tmpfs $LFS/dev/shm
mount -f -t devpts -o gid=4,mode=620 devpts $LFS/dev/pts

Entering the Chroot Environment

It is time to enter the chroot environment to begin building and installing the final LFS system. As user root, run the following command to enter the realm that is, at the moment, populated with only the temporary tools:

chroot "$LFS" /tools/bin/env -i \
    HOME=/root TERM="$TERM" PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
    PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/tools/bin \
    /tools/bin/bash --login +h

The -i option given to the env command will clear all variables of the chroot environment. After that, only the HOME, TERM, PS1, and PATH variables are set again. The TERM=$TERM construct will set the TERM variable inside chroot to the same value as outside chroot. This variable is needed for programs like vim and less to operate properly. If other variables are needed, such as CFLAGS or CXXFLAGS, this is a good place to set them again.

From this point on, there is no need to use the LFS variable anymore, because all work will be restricted to the LFS file system. This is because the Bash shell is told that $LFS is now the root (/) directory.

Notice that /tools/bin comes last in the PATH. This means that a temporary tool will not be used anymore as soon as its final version is installed. This occurs when the shell does not “remember” the locations of executed binaries—for this reason, hashing is switched off by passing the +h option to bash.

It is important that all the commands throughout the remainder of this chapter and the following chapters be run from within the chroot environment. If you leave this environment for any reason (rebooting for example), remember to first mount the proc and devpts file systems (discussed in the previous section) and enter chroot again before continuing with the installations.

Note that the bash prompt will say “I have no name!” This is normal because the /etc/passwd file has not been created yet.

Changing Ownership

Currently, the /tools directory is owned by the user lfs, a user that exists only on the host system. Although the /tools directory can be deleted once the LFS system has been finished, it can be retained to build additional LFS systems. If the /tools directory is kept as is, the files are owned by a user ID without a corresponding account. This is dangerous because a user account created later could get this same user ID and would own the /tools directory and all the files therein, thus exposing these files to possible malicious manipulation.

To avoid this issue, add the lfs user to the new LFS system later when creating the /etc/passwd file, taking care to assign it the same user and group IDs as on the host system. Alternatively, assign the contents of the /tools directory to user root by running the following command:

chown -R 0:0 /tools

The command uses 0:0 instead of root:root, because chown is unable to resolve the name “root” until the password file has been created. This book assumes you ran this chown command.

Creating Directories

It is time to create some structure in the LFS file system. Create a directory tree. Issuing the following commands will create a standard tree:

install -d /{bin,boot,dev,etc/opt,home,lib,mnt}
install -d /{sbin,srv,usr/local,var,opt}
install -d /root -m 0750
install -d /tmp /var/tmp -m 1777
install -d /media/{floppy,cdrom}
install -d /usr/{bin,include,lib,sbin,share,src}
ln -s share/{man,doc,info} /usr
install -d /usr/share/{doc,info,locale,man}
install -d /usr/share/{misc,terminfo,zoneinfo}
install -d /usr/share/man/man{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}
install -d /usr/local/{bin,etc,include,lib,sbin,share,src}
ln -s share/{man,doc,info} /usr/local
install -d /usr/local/share/{doc,info,locale,man}
install -d /usr/local/share/{misc,terminfo,zoneinfo}
install -d /usr/local/share/man/man{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}
install -d /var/{lock,log,mail,run,spool}
install -d /var/{opt,cache,lib/{misc,locate},local}
install -d /opt/{bin,doc,include,info}
install -d /opt/{lib,man/man{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}}

Directories are, by default, created with permission mode 755, but this is not desirable for all directories. In the commands above, two changes are made—one to the home directory of user root, and another to the directories for temporary files.

The first mode change ensures that not just anybody can enter the /root directory—the same as a normal user would do with his or her home directory. The second mode change makes sure that any user can write to the /tmp and /var/tmp directories, but cannot remove other users' files from them. The latter is prohibited by the so-called “sticky bit,” the highest bit (1) in the 1777 bit mask.

FHS Compliance Note

The directory tree is based on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) standard (available at http://www.pathname.com/fhs/). Besides the tree created above, this standard stipulates the existence of /usr/local/games and /usr/share/games. We do not recommend these for a base system, however, feel free to make the system FHS-compliant. The FHS is not precise as to the structure of the /usr/local/share subdirectory, so we created only the directories that are needed.

Creating Essential Symlinks

Some programs hard-wire paths to programs which do not yet exist. In order to satisfy these programs, create a number of symbolic links which will be replaced by real files throughout the course of this chapter after the software has been installed.

ln -s /tools/bin/{bash,cat,pwd,stty} /bin
ln -s /tools/bin/perl /usr/bin
ln -s /tools/lib/libgcc_s.so.1 /usr/lib
ln -s bash /bin/sh

Creating the passwd, group, and log Files

In order for user root to be able to login and for the name “root” to be recognized, there need to be relevant entries in the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files.

Create the /etc/passwd file by running the following command:

cat > /etc/passwd << "EOF"
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
EOF

The actual password for root (the “x” used here is just a placeholder) will be set later.

Create the /etc/group file by running the following command:

cat > /etc/group << "EOF"
root:x:0:
bin:x:1:
sys:x:2:
kmem:x:3:
tty:x:4:
tape:x:5:
daemon:x:6:
floppy:x:7:
disk:x:8:
lp:x:9:
dialout:x:10:
audio:x:11:
video:x:12:
utmp:x:13:
usb:x:14:
EOF

The created groups are not part of any standard—they are some of the groups that the Udev configuration will be using in the next section. The Linux Standard Base (LSB, available at http://www.linuxbase.org) recommends only that, besides the group “root” with a Group ID (GID) of 0, a group “bin” with a GID of 1 be present. All other group names and GIDs can be chosen freely by the system administrator since well-written packages do not depend on GID numbers, but rather use the group's name.

To remove the “I have no name!” prompt, start a new shell. Since a full Glibc was installed in Chapter 5 and the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files have been created, user name and group name resolution will now work.

exec /tools/bin/bash --login +h

Note the use of the +h directive. This tells bash not to use its internal path hashing. Without this directive, bash would remember the paths to binaries it has executed. In order to use the newly compiled binaries as soon as they are installed, turn off this function for the duration of this chapter.

The login, agetty, and init programs (and others) use a number of log files to record information such as who was logged into the system and when. However, these programs will not write to the log files if they do not already exist. Initialize the log files and give them proper permissions:

touch /var/run/utmp /var/log/{btmp,lastlog,wtmp}
chgrp utmp /var/run/utmp /var/log/lastlog
chmod 664 /var/run/utmp /var/log/lastlog

The /var/run/utmp file records the users that are currently logged in. The /var/log/wtmp file records all logins and logouts. The /var/log/lastlog file records when each user last logged in. The /var/log/btmp file records the bad login attempts.

Populating /dev

Creating Initial Device Nodes

When the kernel boots the system, it requires the presence of a few device nodes, in particular the console and null devices. Create these by running the following commands:

mknod -m 600 /dev/console c 5 1
mknod -m 666 /dev/null c 1 3

Mounting ramfs and Populating /dev

The ideal way to populate /dev is to mount a ramfs onto /dev, like tmpfs, and create the devices on there during each bootup. Since the system has not been booted, it is necessary to do what the bootscripts would otherwise do and populate /dev. Begin by mounting /dev:

mount -n -t ramfs none /dev

Run the installed udevstart program to create the initial devices based on all the information in /sys:

/tools/sbin/udevstart

There are some symlinks and directories required by LFS that are not created by Udev, so create those here:

ln -s /proc/self/fd /dev/fd
ln -s /proc/self/fd/0 /dev/stdin
ln -s /proc/self/fd/1 /dev/stdout
ln -s /proc/self/fd/2 /dev/stderr
ln -s /proc/kcore /dev/core
mkdir /dev/pts
mkdir /dev/shm

Finally, mount the proper virtual (kernel) file systems on the newly-created directories:

mount -t devpts -o gid=4,mode=620 none /dev/pts
mount -t tmpfs none /dev/shm

The mount commands executed above may result in the following warning message:

can't open /etc/fstab: No such file or directory.

This file—/etc/fstab—has not been created yet but is also not required for the file systems to be properly mounted. As such, the warning can be safely ignored.

Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.8.1

The Linux-Libc-Headers package contains the “sanitized” kernel headers.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 22 MB

Linux-Libc-Headers installation depends on: Coreutils

Installation of Linux-Libc-Headers

For years it has been common practice to use “raw” kernel headers (straight from a kernel tarball) in /usr/include, but over the last few years, the kernel developers have taken a strong stance that this should not be done. This gave birth to the Linux-Libc-Headers Project, which was designed to maintain an API stable version of the Linux headers.

Install the header files:

cp -R include/asm-i386 /usr/include/asm
cp -R include/linux /usr/include

Ensure that all the headers are owned by root:

chown -R root:root /usr/include/{asm,linux}

Make sure the users can read the headers:

find /usr/include/{asm,linux} -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;
find /usr/include/{asm,linux} -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;

Contents of Linux-Libc-Headers

Installed headers: /usr/include/{asm,linux}/*.h

Short Descriptions

/usr/include/{asm,linux}/*.h

The Linux headers API

Man-pages-1.67

The Man-pages package contains over 1,200 manual pages.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 15 MB

Man-pages installation depends on: Bash, Coreutils, and Make

Installation of Man-pages

Install Man-pages by running:

make install

Contents of Man-pages

Installed files: various manual pages

Short Descriptions

manual pages

Describe the C and C++ functions, important device files, and significant configuration files

Glibc-2.3.4-20040701

The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching, arithmetic, and so on.

Approximate build time: 12.3 SBU

Required disk space: 784 MB

Glibc installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of Glibc

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building Glibc.

The Glibc build system is self-contained and will install perfectly, even though the compiler specs file and linker are still pointing at /tools. The specs and linker cannot be adjusted before the Glibc install because the Glibc autoconf tests would give false results and defeat the goal of achieving a clean build.

The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc outside of the source directory in a dedicated build directory:

mkdir ../glibc-build
cd ../glibc-build

Prepare Glibc for compilation:

../glibc-2.3.4-20040701/configure --prefix=/usr \
    --disable-profile --enable-add-ons=nptl --with-tls \
    --with-__thread --enable-kernel=2.6.0 --without-cvs \
    --libexecdir=/usr/lib/glibc \
    --with-headers=/tools/glibc-kernheaders

The meaning of the new configure option:

--libexecdir=/usr/lib/glibc

This changes the location of the pt_chown program from its default of /usr/libexec to /usr/lib/glibc.

Compile the package:

make
[Important]

Important

In this section, the test suite for Glibc is considered critical. Do not skip it under any circumstance.

Test the results:

make check

The Glibc test suite is highly dependent on certain functions of the host system, in particular the kernel. In general, the Glibc test suite is always expected to pass. However, in certain circumstances, some failures are unavoidable. This is a list of the most common issues:

  • The math tests sometimes fail when running on systems where the CPU is not a relatively new genuine Intel or authentic AMD. Certain optimization settings are also known to be a factor here.

  • The gettext test sometimes fails due to host system issues. The exact reasons are not yet clear.

  • The atime test sometimes fails when the LFS partition is mounted with the noatime option.

  • The shm test can fail when the host system is using the devfs file system but does not have the tmpfs file system mounted at /dev/shm. This occurs because of a lack of support for tmpfs in the kernel.

  • When running on older and slower hardware, some tests can fail because of test timeouts being exceeded.

Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will complain about the absence of /etc/ld.so.conf. Prevent this warning with:

touch /etc/ld.so.conf

Install the package:

make install

The locales that can make the system respond in a different language were not installed by the above command. Install this with:

make localedata/install-locales

To save time, an alternative to running the previous command (which generates and installs every locale Glibc is aware of) is to install only those locales that are wanted and needed. This can be achieved by using the localedef command. Information on this command is located in the INSTALL file in the Glibc source. However, there are a number of locales that are essential in order for the tests of future packages to pass, in particular, the libstdc++ tests from GCC. The following instructions, instead of the install-locales target used above, will install the minimum set of locales necessary for the tests to run successfully:

mkdir -p /usr/lib/locale
localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP

Some locales installed by the make localedata/install-locales command above are not properly supported by some applications that are in the LFS and BLFS books. Because of the various problems that arise due to application programmers making assumptions that break in such locales, LFS should not be used in locales that utilize multibyte character sets (including UTF-8) or right-to-left writing order. Numerous unofficial and unstable patches are required to fix these problems, and it has been decided by the LFS developers not to support such complex locales. This applies to the ja_JP and fa_IR locales as well—they have been installed only for GCC and Gettext tests to pass, and the watch program (part of the Procps package) does not work properly in them. Various attempts to circumvent these restrictions are documented in internationalization-related hints.

Build the linuxthreads man pages, which are a great reference on the threading API (applicable to NPTL as well):

make -C ../glibc-2.3.4-20040701/linuxthreads/man

Install these pages:

make -C ../glibc-2.3.4-20040701/linuxthreads/man install

Configuring Glibc

The /etc/nsswitch.conf file needs to be created because, although Glibc provides defaults when this file is missing or corrupt, the Glibc defaults do not work well with networking. The time zone also needs to be set up.

Create a new file /etc/nsswitch.conf by running the following:

cat > /etc/nsswitch.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf

passwd: files
group: files
shadow: files

hosts: files dns
networks: files

protocols: files
services: files
ethers: files
rpc: files

# End /etc/nsswitch.conf
EOF

To determine the local time zone, run the following script:

tzselect

After answering a few questions about the location, the script will output the name of the time zone (e.g., EST5EDT or Canada/Eastern). Then create the /etc/localtime file by running:

cp --remove-destination /usr/share/zoneinfo/[xxx] \
    /etc/localtime

Replace [xxx] with the name of the time zone that the tzselect provided (e.g., Canada/Eastern).

The meaning of the cp option:

--remove-destination

This is needed to force removal of the already existing symbolic link. The reason for copying the file instead of using a symlink is to cover the situation where /usr is on a separate partition. This could be important when booted into single user mode.

Configuring Dynamic Loader

By default, the dynamic loader (/lib/ld-linux.so.2) searches through /lib and /usr/lib for dynamic libraries that are needed by programs as they are run. However, if there are libraries in directories other than /lib and /usr/lib, these need to be added to the /etc/ld.so.conf file in order for the dynamic loader to find them. Two directories that are commonly known to contain additional libraries are /usr/local/lib and /opt/lib, so add those directories to the dynamic loader's search path.

Create a new file /etc/ld.so.conf by running the following:

cat > /etc/ld.so.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/ld.so.conf

/usr/local/lib
/opt/lib

# End /etc/ld.so.conf
EOF

Contents of Glibc

Installed programs: catchsegv, gencat, getconf, getent, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig, ldd, lddlibc4, locale, localedef, mtrace, nscd, nscd_nischeck, pcprofiledump, pt_chown, rpcgen, rpcinfo, sln, sprof, tzselect, xtrace, zdump, and zic

Installed libraries: ld.so, libBrokenLocale.[a,so], libSegFault.so, libanl.[a,so], libbsd-compat.a, libc.[a,so], libcrypt.[a,so], libdl.[a,so], libg.a, libieee.a, libm.[a,so], libmcheck.a, libmemusage.so, libnsl.a, libnss_compat.so, libnss_dns.so, libnss_files.so, libnss_hesiod.so, libnss_nis.so, libnss_nisplus.so, libpcprofile.so, libpthread.[a,so], libresolv.[a,so], librpcsvc.a, librt.[a,so], libthread_db.so, and libutil.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

catchsegv

Can be used to create a stack trace when a program terminates with a segmentation fault

gencat

Generates message catalogues

getconf

Displays the system configuration values for file system specific variables

getent

Gets entries from an administrative database

iconv

Performs character set conversion

iconvconfig

Creates fastloading iconv module configuration files

ldconfig

Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings

ldd

Reports which shared libraries are required by each given program or shared library

lddlibc4

Assists ldd with object files

locale

Tells the compiler to enable or disable the use of POSIX locales for built-in operations

localedef

Compiles locale specifications

mtrace

Reads and interprets a memory trace file and ouputs a summary in human-readable format

nscd

A daemon that provides a cache for the most common name service requests

nscd_nischeck

Checks whether or not secure mode is necessary for NIS+ lookup

pcprofiledump

Dumps information generated by PC profiling

pt_chown

A helper program for grantpt to set the owner, group and access permissions of a slave pseudo terminal

rpcgen

Generates C code to implement the Remote Procecure Call (RPC) protocol

rpcinfo

Makes an RPC call to an RPC server

sln

A statically linked ln program

sprof

Reads and displays shared object profiling data

tzselect

Asks the user about the location of the system and reports the corresponding time zone description

xtrace

Traces the execution of a program by printing the currently executed function

zdump

The time zone dumper

zic

The time zone compiler

ld.so

The helper program for shared library executables

libBrokenLocale

Used by programs, such as Mozilla, to solve broken locales

libSegFault

The segmentation fault signal handler

libanl

An asynchronous name lookup library

libbsd-compat

Provides the portability needed in order to run certain Berkey Software Distribution (BSD) programs under Linux

libc

The main C library

libcrypt

The cryptography library

libdl

The dynamic linking interface library

libg

A runtime library for g++

libieee

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) floating point library

libm

The mathematical library

libmcheck

Contains code run at boot

libmemusage

Used by memusage to help collect information about the memory usage of a program

libnsl

The network services library

libnss

The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for resolving host names, user names, group names, aliases, services, protocols, etc

libpcprofile

Contains profiling functions used to track the amount of CPU time spent in specific source code lines

libpthread

The POSIX threads library

libresolv

Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting packets to the Internet domain name servers

librpcsvc

Contains functions providing miscellaneous RPC services

librt

Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified by the POSIX.1b Realtime Extension

libthread_db

Contains functions useful for building debuggers for multi-threaded programs

libutil

Contains code for “standard” functions used in many different Unix utilities

Re-adjusting the Toolchain

Now that the new and final C libraries have been installed, it is time to adjust the toolchain again. The toolchain will be adjusted so that it will link any newly compiled program against these new libraries. This is the same process used in the “Adjusting” phase in the beginning of Chapter 5, even though it looks to be reversed. In Chapter 5, the chain was guided from the host's /{,usr/}lib directories to the new /tools/lib directory. Now, the chain will be guided from that same /tools/lib directory to the LFS /{,usr/}lib directories.

Start by adjusting the linker. The source and build directories from the second pass over Binutils were retained for this purpose. Install the adjusted linker by running the following command from within the binutils-build directory:

make -C ld INSTALL=/tools/bin/install install
[Note]

Note

If the earlier warning to retain the Binutils source and build directories from the second pass in Chapter 5 was missed, or if they were accidentally deleted or are inaccessible, ignore the above command. The result will be that the next package, Binutils, will link against the C libraries in /tools rather than in /{,usr/}lib. This is not ideal, however, testing has shown that the resulting Binutils program binaries should be identical.

From now on, every compiled program will link only against the libraries in /usr/lib and /lib. The extra INSTALL=/tools/bin/install option is needed because the Makefile file created during the second pass still contains the reference to /usr/bin/install, which has not been installed yet. Some host distributions contain a ginstall symbolic link which takes precedence in the Makefile file and can cause a problem. The above command takes care of this issue.

Remove the Binutils source and build directories now.

Next, amend the GCC specs file so that it points to the new dynamic linker. A sed command accomplishes this:

sed -i 's@ /tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2@ /lib/ld-linux.so.2@g' \
    `gcc --print-file specs`

It is a good idea to visually inspect the specs file to verify the intended change was actually made.

[Important]

Important

If working on a platform where the name of the dynamic linker is something other than ld-linux.so.2, substitute “ld-linux.so.2” with the name of the platform's dynamic linker in the above commands. Refer back to the section called “Toolchain Technical Notes” if necessary.

[Caution]

Caution

It is imperative at this point to stop and ensure that the basic functions (compiling and linking) of the adjusted toolchain are working as expected. To do this, perform a sanity check:

echo 'main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /lib'

If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors, and the output of the last command will be (allowing for platform-specific differences in dynamic linker name):

[Requesting program interpreter: /lib/ld-linux.so.2]

Note that /lib is now the prefix of our dynamic linker.

If the output does not appear as shown above or is not received at all, then something is seriously wrong. Investigate and retrace the steps to find out where the problem is and correct it. The most likely reason is that something went wrong with the specs file amendment above. Any issues will need to be resolved before continuing on with the process.

Once everything is working correctly, clean up the test files:

rm dummy.c a.out

Binutils-2.15.91.0.2

The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.

Approximate build time: 1.4 SBU

Required disk space: 167 MB

Binutils installation depends on: Bash, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of Binutils

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building Binutils.

Verify that the PTYs are working properly inside the chroot environment. Check that everything is set up correctly by performing a simple test:

expect -c "spawn ls"

If the following message shows up, the chroot environment is not set up for proper PTY operation:

The system has no more ptys.  
Ask your system administrator to create more.

This issue needs to be resolved before running the test suites for Binutils and GCC.

The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils outside of the source directory in a dedicated build directory:

mkdir ../binutils-build
cd ../binutils-build

Prepare Binutils for compilation:

../binutils-2.15.91.0.2/configure --prefix=/usr \
    --enable-shared

Compile the package:

make tooldir=/usr

Normally, the tooldir (the directory where the executables will ultimately be located) is set to $(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias), which expands into /usr/i686-pc-linux-gnu/usr/i686-pc- linux-gnu. Because this is a custom system, this target-specific directory in /usr is not required. This setup would be used if the system was used to cross-compile (for example, compiling a package on an Intel machine that generates code that can be executed on PowerPC machines).

[Important]

Important

The test suite for Binutils in this section is considered critical. Do not skip it under any circumstances.

Test the results:

make check

Install the package:

make tooldir=/usr install

Install the libiberty header file that is needed by some packages:

cp ../binutils-2.15.91.0.2/include/libiberty.h /usr/include

Contents of Binutils

Installed programs: addr2line, ar, as, c++filt, gprof, ld, nm, objcopy, objdump, ranlib, readelf, size, strings, and strip

Installed libraries: libiberty.a, libbfd.[a,so], and libopcodes.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

addr2line

Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers; given an address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging information in the executable to determine which source file and line number are associated with the address

ar

Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives

as

An assembler that assembles the output of gcc into object files

c++filt

Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep overloaded functions from clashing

gprof

Displays call graph profile data

ld

A linker that combines a number of object and archive files into a single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol references

nm

Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file

objcopy

Translates one type of object file into another

objdump

Displays information about the given object file, with options controlling the particular information to display; the information shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation tools

ranlib

Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it in the archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive members that are relocatable object files

readelf

Displays information about ELF type binaries

size

Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given object files

strings

Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable characters that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from the initializing and loading sections while for other types of files, it scans the entire file

strip

Discards symbols from object files

libiberty

Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including getopt, obstack, strerror, strtol, and strtoul

libbfd

The Binary File Descriptor library

libopcodes

A library for dealing with opcodes—the “readable text” versions of instructions for the processor; it is used for building utilities like objdump.

GCC-3.4.1

The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.

Approximate build time: 11.7 SBU

Required disk space: 294 MB

GCC installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Findutils, Gawk, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of GCC

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building GCC.

Unpack both the gcc-core and the gcc-g++ tarballs—they will unpack into the same directory. Likewise, extract the gcc-testsuite package. The full GCC package contains additional compilers. Instructions for building these can be found at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/general/gcc.html.

Apply only the No-Fixincludes patch (not the Specs patch) also used in the previous chapter:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.1-no_fixincludes-1.patch

GCC fails to compile some packages outside of a base Linux From Scratch install (e.g., Mozilla and kdegraphics) when used in conjunction with newer versions of Binutils. Apply the following patch to fix this issue:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.1-linkonce-1.patch

Apply a sed substitution that will suppress the installation of libiberty.a. The version of libiberty.a provided by Binutils will be used instead:

sed -i 's/install_to_$(INSTALL_DEST) //' libiberty/Makefile.in

The GCC documentation recommends building GCC outside of the source directory in a dedicated build directory:

mkdir ../gcc-build
cd ../gcc-build

Prepare GCC for compilation:

../gcc-3.4.1/configure --prefix=/usr \
    --libexecdir=/usr/lib --enable-shared \
    --enable-threads=posix --enable-__cxa_atexit \
    --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-languages=c,c++

Compile the package:

make
[Important]

Important

In this section, the test suite for GCC is considered critical. Do not skip it under any circumstance.

Test the results, but do not stop at errors:

make -k check

Some of the errors are known issues and were noted in the previous chapter. The test suite notes from the section called “GCC-3.4.1 - Pass 2” are still relevant here. Be sure to refer back to them as necessary.

Install the package:

make install

Some packages expect the C PreProcessor to be installed in the /lib directory. To support those packages, create this symlink:

ln -s ../usr/bin/cpp /lib

Many packages use the name cc to call the C compiler. To satisfy those packages, create a symlink:

ln -s gcc /usr/bin/cc
[Note]

Note

At this point, it is strongly recommended to repeat the sanity check performed earlier in this chapter. Refer back to the section called “Re-adjusting the Toolchain” and repeat the check. If the results are in error, then the most likely reason is that the GCC Specs patch from Chapter 5 was erroneously applied here.

Contents of GCC

Installed programs: c++, cc (link to gcc), cpp, g++, gcc, gccbug, and gcov

Installed libraries: libgcc.a, libgcc_eh.a, libgcc_s.so, libstdc++.[a,so], and libsupc++.a

Short Descriptions

cc

The C compiler

cpp

The C preprocessor; it is used by the compiler to expand the #include, #define, and similar statements in the source files

c++

The C++ compiler

g++

The C++ compiler

gcc

The C compiler

gccbug

A shell script used to help create useful bug reports

gcov

A coverage testing tool; it is used to analyze programs to determine where optimizations will have the most effect

libgcc

Contains run-time support for gcc

libstdc++

The standard C++ library

libsupc++

Provides supporting routines for the C++ programming language

Coreutils-5.2.1

The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the basic system characteristics.

Approximate build time: 0.9 SBU

Required disk space: 69 MB

Coreutils installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, and Sed

Installation of Coreutils

A known issue with the uname program from this package is that the -p switch always returns unknown. The following patch fixes this behavior for Intel architectures:

patch -Np1 -i ../coreutils-5.2.1-uname-2.patch

Prevent Coreutils from installing binaries that will be later be installed by other packages:

patch -Np1 -i \
    ../coreutils-5.2.1-suppress_uptime_kill_su-1.patch

Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:

DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION=199209 ./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

The test suite of Coreutils makes several assumptions about the presence of files and users that are not valid this early in the LFS build. Therefore, additional items need to be set up before running the tests. Skip down to “Install the package” if not running the test suite.

Create two dummy groups and a dummy user name:

echo "dummy1:x:1000:" >> /etc/group
echo "dummy2:x:1001:dummy" >> /etc/group
echo "dummy:x:1000:1000:::/bin/bash" >> /etc/passwd

Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are meant to be run as user root:

make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=dummy check-root

Then run the remainder of the tests as the dummy user:

src/su dummy -c "make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"

When testing is complete, remove the dummy user and groups:

sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/passwd /etc/group

Install the package:

make install

Move programs to the proper locations:

mv /usr/bin/{[,basename,cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,dd,df} /bin
mv /usr/bin/{date,echo,false,head,hostname,install,ln} /bin
mv /usr/bin/{ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm,rmdir,sync} /bin
mv /usr/bin/{sleep,stty,test,touch,true,uname} /bin
mv /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin

Finally, create a symlink to be FHS-compliant:

ln -s ../../bin/install /usr/bin

Contents of Coreutils

Installed programs: basename, cat, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors, dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups, head, hostid, hostname, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mv, nice, nl, nohup, od, paste, pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, rm, rmdir, seq, sha1sum, shred, sleep, sort, split, stat, stty, sum, sync, tac, tail, tee, test, touch, tr, true, tsort, tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and yes

Short Descriptions

basename

Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name

cat

Concatenates files to standard output

chgrp

Changes the group ownership of each given file to the given group; the group can either be either given a name or a numeric ID

chmod

Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an octal number representing the new permissions

chown

Changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file to the given user/group pair

chroot

Runs a command with the specified directory as the / directory

cksum

Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte counts of each specified file

comm

Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines that are unique and the lines that are common

cp

Copies files

csplit

Splits a given file into several new files, separating them according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte count of each new file

cut

Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given fields or positions

date

Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the system date

dd

Copies a file using the given block size and count, while optionally performing conversions on it

df

Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected files

dir

Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as the ls command)

dircolors

Outputs commands to set the LS_COLOR environment variable to change the color scheme used by ls

dirname

Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name

du

Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory, by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by each of the given files

echo

Displays the given strings

env

Runs a command in a modified environment

expand

Converts tabs to spaces

expr

Evaluates expressions

factor

Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers

false

Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code indicating failure

fmt

Reformats the paragraphs in the given files

fold

Wraps the lines in the given files

groups

Reports a user's group memberships

head

Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each given file

hostid

Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host

hostname

Reports or sets the name of the host

id

Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships of the current user or specified user

install

Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if possible, their owner and group

join

Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two separate files

link

Creates a hard link with the given name to a file

ln

Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files

logname

Reports the current user's login name

ls

Lists the contents of each given directory

md5sum

Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums

mkdir

Creates directories with the given names

mkfifo

Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a “named pipe” in UNIX parlance, with the given names

mknod

Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO

mv

Moves or renames files or directories

nice

Runs a program with modified scheduling priority

nl

Numbers the lines from the given files

nohup

Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to a log file

od

Dumps files in octal and other formats

paste

Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines side by side, separated by tab characters

pathchk

Checks if file names are valid or portable

pinky

Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information about the given users

pr

Paginates and columnates files for printing

printenv

Prints the environment

printf

Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much like the C printf function

ptx

Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files, with each keyword in its context

pwd

Reports the name of the current working directory

readlink

Reports the value of the given symbolic link

rm

Removes files or directories

rmdir

Removes directories if they are empty

seq

Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a given increment

sha1sum

Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1) checksums

shred

Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns, making it difficult to recover the data

sleep

Pauses for the given amount of time

sort

Sorts the lines from the given files

split

Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of lines

stat

Displays file or filesystem status

stty

Sets or reports terminal line settings

sum

Prints checksum and block counts for each given file

sync

Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk and updates the super block

tac

Concatenates the given files in reverse

tail

Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each given file

tee

Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output and to the given files

test

Compares values and checks file types

touch

Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist are created with zero length

tr

Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from standard input

true

Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code indicating success

tsort

Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list according to the partial ordering in a given file

tty

Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard input

uname

Reports system information

unexpand

Converts spaces to tabs

uniq

Discards all but one of successive identical lines

unlink

Removes the given file

users

Reports the names of the users currently logged on

vdir

Is the same as ls -l

wc

Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given

who

Reports who is logged on

whoami

Reports the user name associated with the current effective user ID

yes

Repeatedly outputs “y” or a given string until killed

Zlib-1.2.1

The Zlib package contains compression and un-compression routines used by some programs.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 1.5 MB

Zlib installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Sed

Installation of Zlib

The following patch fixes a Denial of Service vulnerability in the Zlib compression library:

patch -Np1 -i ../zlib-1.2.1-security-1.patch
[Note]

Note

Zlib is known to build its shared library incorrectly if CFLAGS is specified in the environment. If using a specified CFLAGS variable, be sure to add the -fPIC directive to the CFLAGS variable for the duration of the configure command below, then remove it afterwards.

Prepare Zlib for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --shared

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the shared library:

make install

Build the static library:

make clean
./configure --prefix=/usr
make

To test the results again, issue: make check.

Install the static library:

make install

Fix the permissions on the static library:

chmod 644 /usr/lib/libz.a

It is good policy and common practice to place important libraries into the /lib directory. This is most important in scenarios where /usr is on a separate partition. Essentially, the run-time components of any libraries that are used by programs in /bin or /sbin should reside in /lib so that they are on the root partition and available in the event of /usr being inaccessible.

For the above reason, move the run-time components of the shared Zlib into /lib:

mv /usr/lib/libz.so.* /lib

Fix the /usr/lib/libz.so symlink:

ln -sf ../../lib/libz.so.1 /usr/lib/libz.so

Contents of Zlib

Installed libraries: libz[a,so]

Short Descriptions

libz

Contains compression and un-compression functions used by some programs

Mktemp-1.5

The Mktemp package contains programs used to create secure temporary files in shell scripts.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 317 KB

Mktemp installation depends on: Coreutils, Make, and Patch

Installation of Mktemp

Many scripts still use the deprecated tempfile program, which has functionality similar to mktemp. Patch Mktemp to include a tempfile wrapper:

patch -Np1 -i ../mktemp-1.5-add_tempfile-1.patch

Prepare Mktemp for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --with-libc

The meaning of the configure option:

--with-libc

This causes the mktemp program to use the mkstemp and mkdtemp functions from the system C library.

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install
make install-tempfile

Contents of Mktemp

Installed programs: mktemp and tempfile

Short Descriptions

mktemp

Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts

tempfile

Creates temporary files in a less secure manner than mktemp; it is installed for backwards-compatibility

Iana-Etc-1.01

The Iana-Etc package provides data for network services and protocols.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 641 KB

Iana-Etc installation depends on: Make

Installation of Iana-Etc

Parse the data:

make

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Iana-Etc

Installed files: /etc/protocols and /etc/services

Short Descriptions

/etc/protocols

Describes the various DARPA Internet protocols that are available from the TCP/IP subsystem

/etc/services

Provides a mapping between friendly textual names for internet services, and their underlying assigned port numbers and protocol types

Findutils-4.1.20

The Findutils package contains programs to find files. Processes are provided to recursively search through a directory tree and to create, maintain, and search a database (often faster than the recursive find, but unreliable if the database has not been recently updated).

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 7.5 MB

Findutils installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make and Sed

Installation of Findutils

Prepare Findutils for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --libexecdir=/usr/lib/locate \
    --localstatedir=/var/lib/locate

The localstatedir directive above changes the location of the locate database to be in /var/lib/locate, which is FHS-compliant.

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Findutils

Installed programs: bigram, code, find, frcode, locate, updatedb, and xargs

Short Descriptions

bigram

Was formerly used to produce locate databases

code

Was formerly used to produce locate databases; it is the ancestor of frcode.

find

Searches given directory trees for files matching the specified criteria

frcode

Is called by updatedb to compress the list of file names; it uses front-compression, reducing the database size by a factor of four to five.

locate

Searches through a database of file names and reports the names that contain a given string or match a given pattern

updatedb

Updates the locate database; it scans the entire file system (including other file systems that are currently mounted, unless told not to) and puts every file name it finds into the database

xargs

Can be used to apply a given command to a list of files

Gawk-3.1.4

The Gawk package contains programs for manipulating text files.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 17 MB

Gawk installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Gawk

Prepare Gawk for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --libexecdir=/usr/lib

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Gawk

Installed programs: awk (link to gawk), gawk, gawk-3.1.4, grcat, igawk, pgawk, pgawk-3.1.4, and pwcat

Short Descriptions

awk

A link to gawk

gawk

A program for manipulating text files; it is the GNU implementation of awk

gawk-3.1.4

A hard link to gawk

grcat

Dumps the group database /etc/group

igawk

Gives gawk the ability to include files

pgawk

The profiling version of gawk

pgawk-3.1.4

Hard link to pgawk

pwcat

Dumps the password database /etc/passwd

Ncurses-5.4

The Ncurses package contains libraries for terminal-independent handling of character screens.

Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU

Required disk space: 27 MB

Ncurses installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Ncurses

Prepare Ncurses for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --with-shared --without-debug

Compile the package:

make

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make install

Give the Ncurses libraries execute permissions:

chmod 755 /usr/lib/*.5.4

Fix a library that should not be executable:

chmod 644 /usr/lib/libncurses++.a

Move the libraries to the /lib directory, where they are expected to reside:

mv /usr/lib/libncurses.so.5* /lib

Because the libraries have been moved, a few symlinks are pointing to non-existent files. Recreate those symlinks:

ln -sf ../../lib/libncurses.so.5 /usr/lib/libncurses.so
ln -sf libncurses.so /usr/lib/libcurses.so

Contents of Ncurses

Installed programs: captoinfo (link to tic), clear, infocmp, infotocap (link to tic), reset (link to tset), tack, tic, toe, tput, and tset

Installed libraries: libcurses.[a,so] (link to libncurses.[a,so]), libform.[a,so], libmenu.[a,so], libncurses++.a, libncurses.[a,so], and libpanel.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

captoinfo

Converts a termcap description into a terminfo description

clear

Clears the screen, if possible

infocmp

Compares or prints out terminfo descriptions

infotocap

Converts a terminfo description into a termcap description

reset

Reinitializes a terminal to its default values

tack

The terminfo action checker; it is mainly used to test the accuracy of an entry in the terminfo database

tic

The terminfo entry-description compiler that translates a terminfo file from source format into the binary format needed for the ncurses library routines. A terminfo file contains information on the capabilities of a certain terminal

toe

Lists all available terminal types, giving the primary name and description for each

tput

Makes the values of terminal-dependent capabilities available to the shell; it can also be used to reset or initialize a terminal or report its long name

tset

Can be used to initialize terminals

libcurses

A link to libncurses

libncurses

Contains functions to display text in many complex ways on a terminal screen; a good example of the use of these functions is the menu displayed during the kernel's make menuconfig

libform

Contains functions to implement forms

libmenu

Contains functions to implement menus

libpanel

Contains functions to implement panels

Readline-5.0

The Readline package contains the Readline command-line library.

Approximate build time: 0.11 SBU

Required disk space: 3.8 MB

Readline installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

Installation of Readline

The following patch fixes a problem where Readline sometimes only shows 33 characters on a line and then wraps to the next line.

patch -Np1 -i ../readline-5.0-display_wrap-1.patch

Prepare Readline for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make SHLIB_XLDFLAGS=-lncurses

The meaning of the make option:

SHLIB_XLDFLAGS=-lncurses

This option forces Readline to link against the libncurses library.

Install the package:

make install

Give Readline's dynamic libraries more appropriate permissions:

chmod 755 /usr/lib/*.5.0

Move the dynamic libraries to a more appropriate location:

mv /usr/lib/lib{readline,history}.so.5* /lib

Because the libraries have been moved, a few symlinks are now pointing to non-existent files. Recreate those symlinks:

ln -sf ../../lib/libhistory.so.5 /usr/lib/libhistory.so
ln -sf ../../lib/libreadline.so.5 /usr/lib/libreadline.so

Contents of Readline

Installed libraries: libhistory.[a,so], and libreadline.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

libhistory

Provides a consistent user interface for recalling lines of history

libreadline

Aids in the consistency of user interface across discrete programs that need to provide a command line interface

Vim-6.3

The Vim package contains a powerful text editor.

Approximate build time: 0.4 SBU

Required disk space: 34 MB

Vim installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

[Tip]

Tip: Alternatives to Vim

If you prefer another editor—such as Emacs, Joe, or Nano—please refer to http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/postlfs/editors.html for suggested installation instructions.

Installation of Vim

First, unpack both vim-6.3.tar.bz2 and (optionally) vim-6.3-lang.tar.gz archives into the same directory. Then, change the default locations of the vimrc and gvimrc configuration files to /etc:

echo '#define SYS_VIMRC_FILE "/etc/vimrc"' >> src/feature.h
echo '#define SYS_GVIMRC_FILE "/etc/gvimrc"' >> src/feature.h

Prepare Vim for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-multibyte

The optional but highly recommended --enable-multibyte switch includes support for editing files in multibyte character encodings into vim. This is needed if using a locale with a multibyte character set. This switch is also helpful to be able to edit text files initially created in Linux distributions like Fedora Core that use UTF-8 as a default character set.

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make test. However, this test suite outputs a lot of chaotic characters to the screen, which can cause issues with the settings of the current terminal. Therefore, running the test suite here is optional.

Install the package:

make install

Many users are used to using vi instead of vim. To allow execution of vim when users habitually enter vi, create a symlink:

ln -s vim /usr/bin/vi

If the X Window System is going to be installed on the LFS system, it may be necessary to recompile Vim after installing X. Vim comes with a GUI version of the editor that requires X and some additional libraries to be installed. For more information on this process, refer to the Vim documentation and the Vim installation page in the BLFS book at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/postlfs/editors.html#postlfs-editors-vim.

Configuring Vim

By default, vim runs in vi-incompatible mode. This may be new to users who have used other editors in the past. The “nocompatible” setting is included below to highlight the fact that a new behavior is being used. It also reminds those who would change to “compatible” mode that it should appear first. This is necessary because it changes other settings, and overrides must come after this setting. Create a default vim configuration file by running the following:

cat > /etc/vimrc << "EOF"
" Begin /etc/vimrc

set nocompatible
set backspace=2
syntax on
if (&term == "iterm") || (&term == "putty")
  set background=dark
endif

" End /etc/vimrc
EOF

The set nocompatible makes vim behave in a more useful way (the default) than the vi-compatible manner. Remove the “no” to keep the old vi behavior. The set backspace=2 allows backspacing over line breaks, autoindents, and the start of insert. The syntax on enables vim's syntax highlighting. Finally, the if statement with the set background=dark corrects vim's guess about the background color of some terminal emulators. This gives the highlighting a better color scheme for use on the black background of these programs.

Documentation for other available options can be obtained by running the following command:

vim -c ':options'

Contents of Vim

Installed programs: efm_filter.pl, efm_perl.pl, ex (link to vim), less.sh, mve.awk, pltags.pl, ref, rview (link to vim), rvim (link to vim), shtags.pl, tcltags, vi (link to vim), view (link to vim), vim, vim132, vim2html.pl, vimdiff (link to vim), vimm, vimspell.sh, vimtutor, and xxd

Short Descriptions

efm_filter.pl

A filter for creating an error file that can be read by vim

efm_perl.pl

Reformats the error messages of the Perl interpreter for use with the “quickfix” mode of vim

ex

Starts vim in ex mode

less.sh

A script that starts vim with less.vim

mve.awk

Processes vim errors

pltags.pl

Creates a tags file for Perl code for use by vim

ref

Checks the spelling of arguments

rview

Is a restricted version of view; no shell commands can be started and view cannot be suspended

rvim

Is a restricted version of vim; no shell commands can be started and vim cannot be suspended

shtags.pl

Generates a tag file for Perl scripts

tcltags

Generates a tag file for TCL code

view

Starts vim in read-only mode

vi

Is the editor

vim

Is the editor

vim132

Starts vim with the terminal in 132-column mode

vim2html.pl

Converts Vim documentation to HypterText Markup Language (HTML)

vimdiff

Edits two or three versions of a file with vim and show differences

vimm

Enables the DEC locator input model on a remote terminal

vimspell.sh

Spells a file and generates the syntax statements necessary to highlight in vim. This script requires the old Unix spell command, which is provided neither in LFS nor in BLFS

vimtutor

Teaches the basic keys and commands of vim

xxd

Creates a hex dump of the given file; it can also do the reverse, so it can be used for binary patching

M4-1.4.2

The M4 package contains a macro processor.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 3.0 MB

M4 installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, and Sed

Installation of M4

Prepare M4 for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of M4

Installed program: m4

Short Descriptions

m4

copies the given files while expanding the macros that they contain. These macros are either built-in or user-defined and can take any number of arguments. Besides performing macro expansion, m4 has built-in functions for including named files, running Unix commands, performing integer arithmetic, manipulating text, recursion, etc. The m4 program can be used either as a front-end to a compiler or as a macro processor in its own right.

Bison-1.875a

The Bison package contains a parser generator.

Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU

Required disk space: 10.6 MB

Bison installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

Installation of Bison

Prepare Bison for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Bison

Installed programs: bison and yacc

Installed library: liby.a

Short Descriptions

bison

generates, from a series of rules, a program for analyzing the structure of text files; Bison is a replacement for Yacc (Yet Another Compiler Compiler)

yacc

a wrapper for bison, meant for programs that still call yacc instead of bison; it calls bison with the -y option

liby.a

the Yacc library containing implementations of Yacc-compatible yyerror and main functions; this library is normally not very useful, but POSIX requires it

Less-382

The Less package contains a text file viewer.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 3.4 MB

Less installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

Installation of Less

Prepare Less for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin --sysconfdir=/etc

The meaning of the configure option:

--sysconfdir=/etc

This option tells the programs created by the package to look in /etc for the configuration files.

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Less

Installed programs: less, lessecho, and lesskey

Short Descriptions

less

a file viewer or pager; it displays the contents of the given file, letting the user scroll, find strings, and jump to marks

lessecho

needed to expand meta-characters, such as * and ?, in filenames on Unix systems

lesskey

used to specify the key bindings for less

Groff-1.19.1

The Groff package contains programs for processing and formatting text.

Approximate build time: 0.5 SBU

Required disk space: 43 MB

Groff installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Groff

Groff expects the environment variable PAGE to contain the default paper size. For users in the United States, PAGE=letter is appropriate. Elsewhere, PAGE=A4 may be more suitable.

Prepare Groff for compilation:

PAGE=[paper_size] ./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Some documentation programs, such as xman, will not work properly without the following symlinks:

ln -s soelim /usr/bin/zsoelim
ln -s eqn /usr/bin/geqn
ln -s tbl /usr/bin/gtbl

Contents of Groff

Installed programs: addftinfo, afmtodit, eqn, eqn2graph, geqn (link to eqn), grn, grodvi, groff, groffer, grog, grolbp, grolj4, grops, grotty, gtbl (link to tbl), hpftodit, indxbib, lkbib, lookbib, mmroff, neqn, nroff, pfbtops, pic, pic2graph, post-grohtml, pre-grohtml, refer, soelim, tbl, tfmtodit, troff, and zsoelim (link to soelim)

Short Descriptions

addftinfo

Reads a troff font file and adds some additional font-metric information that is used by the groff system

afmtodit

Creates a font file for use with groff and grops

eqn

Compiles descriptions of equations embedded within troff input files into commands that are understood by troff

eqn2graph

Converts a troff EQN (equation) into a cropped image

eqn

A link to eqn

grn

A groff preprocessor for gremlin files

grodvi

A driver for groff that produces TeX dvi format

groff

A front-end to the groff document formatting system; normally, it runs the troff program and a post-processor appropriate for the selected device

groffer

Displays groff files and man pages on X and tty terminals

grog

Reads files and guesses which of the groff options -e, -man, -me, -mm, -ms, -p, -s, and -t are required for printing files, and reports the groff command including those options

grolbp

Is a groff driver for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers)

grolj4

Is a driver for groff that produces output in PCL5 format suitable for an HP Laserjet 4 printer

grops

Translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript

grotty

Translates the output of GNU troff into a form suitable for typewriter-like devices

gtbl

Is the GNU implementation of tbl

hpftodit

Creates a font file for use with groff -Tlj4 from an HP-tagged font metric file

indxbib

Creates an inverted index for the bibliographic databases with a specified file for use with refer, lookbib, and lkbib

lkbib

Searches bibliographic databases for references that contain specified keys and reports any references found

lookbib

Prints a prompt on the standard error (unless the standard input is not a terminal), reads a line containing a set of keywords from the standard input, searches the bibliographic databases in a specified file for references containing those keywords, prints any references found on the standard output, and repeats this process until the end of input

mmroff

A simple preprocessor for groff

neqn

Formats equations for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output

nroff

A script that emulates the nroff command using groff

pfbtops

Translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII

pic

Compiles descriptions of pictures embedded within troff or TeX input files into commands understood by TeX or troff

pic2graph

Converts a PIC diagram into a cropped image

post-grohtml

Translates the output of GNU troff to html

pre-grohtml

Translates the output of GNU troff to html

refer

Copies the contents of a file to the standard output, except that lines between .[ and .] are interpreted as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are interpreted as commands for how citations are to be processed

soelim

Reads files and replaces lines of the form .so file by the contents of the mentioned file

tbl

Compiles descriptions of tables embedded within troff input files into commands that are understood by troff

tfmtodit

Creates a font file for use with groff -Tdvi

troff

Is highly compatible with Unix troff; it should usually be invoked using the groff command, which will also run preprocessors and post-processors in the appropriate order and with the appropriate options

zsoelim

Is the GNU implementation of soelim

Sed-4.1.2

The Sed package contains a stream editor.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 5.2 MB

Sed installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Texinfo

Installation of Sed

Prepare Sed for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Sed

Installed program: sed

Short Descriptions

sed

Filters and transforms text files in a single pass

Flex-2.5.31

The Flex package contains a utility for generating programs that recognize patterns in text.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 3.4 MB

Flex installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

Installation of Flex

Flex contains several known bugs. Fix these with the following patch:

patch -Np1 -i ../flex-2.5.31-debian_fixes-2.patch

The GNU autotools detects that the Flex source code has been modified by the previous patch and tries to update the manual page accordingly. This does not work correctly on many systems, and the default page is fine, so make sure it does not get regenerated:

touch doc/flex.1

Prepare Flex for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

There are some packages that expect to find the lex library in /usr/lib. Create a symlink to account for this:

ln -s libfl.a /usr/lib/libl.a

A few programs do not know about flex yet and try to run its predecessor, lex. To support those programs, create a wrapper script named lex that calls flex in lex emulation mode:

cat > /usr/bin/lex << "EOF"
#!/bin/sh
# Begin /usr/bin/lex

exec /usr/bin/flex -l "$@"

# End /usr/bin/lex
EOF
chmod 755 /usr/bin/lex

Contents of Flex

Installed programs: flex, flex++ (link to flex), and lex

Installed library: libfl.a

Short Descriptions

flex

A tool for generating programs that recognize patterns in text; it allows for the versatility to specify the rules for pattern-finding, eradicating the need to develop a specialized program

flex++

Invokes a version of flex that is used exclusively for C++ scanners

lex

Script that runs flex in lex emulation mode

libfl.a

The flex library

Gettext-0.14.1

The Gettext package contains utilities for internationalization and localization. These allow programs to be compiled with NLS, enabling them to output messages in the user's native language.

Approximate build time: 0.5 SBU

Required disk space: 55 MB

Gettext installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Gettext

Prepare Gettext for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check. This takes a very long time, around 7 SBUs.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Gettext

Installed programs: autopoint, config.charset, config.rpath, envsubst, gettext, gettextize, hostname, msgattrib, msgcat, msgcmp, msgcomm, msgconv, msgen, msgexec, msgfilter, msgfmt, msggrep, msginit, msgmerge, msgunfmt, msguniq, ngettext, and xgettext

Installed libraries: libasprintf[a,so], libgettextlib[a,so], libgettextpo[a,so] and libgettextsrc[a,so]

Short Descriptions

autopoint

Copies standard Gettext infrastructure files into a source package

config.charset

Outputs a system-dependent table of character encoding aliases

config.rpath

Outputs a system-dependent set of variables, describing how to set the runtime search path of shared libraries in an executable

envsubst

Substitutes environment variables in shell format strings

gettext

Translates a natural language message into the user's language by looking up the translation in a message catalog

gettextize

Copies all standard Gettext files into the given top-level directory of a package to begin internationalizing it

hostname

Displays a network hostname in various forms

msgattrib

Filters the messages of a translation catalog according to their attributes and manipulates the attributes

msgcat

Concatenates and merges the given .po files

msgcmp

Compares two .po files to check that both contain the same set of msgid strings

msgcomm

Finds the messages that are common to to the given .po files

msgconv

Converts a translation catalog to a different character encoding

msgen

Creates an English translation catalog

msgexec

Applies a command to all translations of a translation catalog

msgfilter

Applies a filter to all translations of a translation catalog

msgfmt

Generates a binary message catalog from from a translation catalog

msggrep

Extracts all messages of a translation catalog that match a given pattern or belong to some given source files

msginit

Creates a new .po file, initializing the meta information with values from the user's environment

msgmerge

Combines two raw translations into a single file

msgunfmt

Decompiles a binary message catalog into raw translation text

msguniq

Unifies duplicate translations in a translation catalog

ngettext

Displays native language translations of a textual message whose grammatical form depends on a number

xgettext

Extracts the translatable message lines from the given source files to make the first translation template

libasprintf

defines the autosprintf class, which makes C formatted output routines usable in C++ programs, for use with the <string> strings and the <iostream> streams

libgettextlib

a private library containing common routines used by the various Gettext programs; these are not intended for general use

libgettextpo

Used to write specialized programs that process .po files; this library is used when the standard applications shipped with Gettext (such as msgcomm, msgcmp, msgattrib, and msgen) will not suffice

libgettextsrc

A private library containing common routines used by the various Gettext programs; these are not intended for general use

Inetutils-1.4.2

The Inetutils package contains programs for basic networking.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 11 MB

Inetutils installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

Installation of Inetutils

Inetutils has issues with the Linux 2.6 kernel series. Fix these issues by applying the following patch:

patch -Np1 -i ../inetutils-1.4.2-kernel_headers-1.patch

All programs that come with Inetutils will not be installed. However, the Inetutils build system will insist on installing all the man pages anyway. The following patch will correct this situation:

patch -Np1 -i ../inetutils-1.4.2-no_server_man_pages-1.patch

Prepare Inetutils for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --libexecdir=/usr/sbin \
    --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var \
    --disable-logger --disable-syslogd \
    --disable-whois --disable-servers

The meaning of the configure options:

--disable-logger

This option prevents Inetutils from installing the logger program, which is used by scripts to pass messages to the System Log Daemon. Do not install it because Util-linux installs a better version later.

--disable-syslogd

This option prevents Inetutils from installing the System Log Daemon, which is installed with the Sysklogd package.

--disable-whois

This option disables the building of the Inetutils whois client, which is out of date. Instructions for a better whois client are in the BLFS book.

--disable-servers

This disables the installation of the various network servers included as part of the Inetutils package. These servers are deemed not appropriate in a basic LFS system. Some are insecure by nature and are only considered safe on trusted networks. More information can be found at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/basicnet/inetutils.html http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/ basicnet/inetutils.html. Note that better replacements are available for many of these servers.

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Move the ping program to its FHS-compliant place:

mv /usr/bin/ping /bin

Contents of Inetutils

Installed programs: ftp, ping, rcp, rlogin, rsh, talk, telnet, and tftp

Short Descriptions

ftp

Is the file transfer protocol program

ping

Sends echo-request packets and reports how long the replies take

rcp

Performs remote file copy

rlogin

Performs remote login

rsh

Runs a remote shell

talk

Is used to chat with another user

telnet

An interface to the TELNET protocol

tftp

A trivial file transfer program

Iproute2-2.6.8-040823

The Iproute2 package contains programs for basic and advanced IPV4-based networking.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: .6 MB

Iproute2 installation depends on: GCC, Glibc, Make, Linux-Headers, and Sed

Installation of Iproute2

The arpd binary included in this package is dependent on Berkeley DB. Because arpd is not a very common requirement on a base Linux system, remove the dependency on Berkeley DB by applying the patch using the command below. If the arpd binary is needed, instructions for compiling Berkeley DB can be found in the BLFS Book at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/content/databases.html#db.

patch -Np1 -i ../iproute2-2.6.8_040823-remove_db-1.patch

Prepare Iproute2 for compilation:

./configure 

Compile the package:

make SBINDIR=/sbin

The meaning of the make option:

SBINDIR=/sbin

This makes sure that the Iproute2 binaries will install into /sbin. This is the correct location according to the FHS, because some of the Iproute2 binaries are used in the bootscripts.

Install the package:

make SBINDIR=/sbin install

Contents of Iproute2

Installed programs: ifstat, ip, nstat, routef, routel, rtmon, rtstat, ss, and tc.

Short Descriptions

ifstat

Shows the interfaces statistic, including the amount of transmitted and received packages by interface.

ip

The main executable. It has several different functions:

ip link [device] allows users to look at the state of devices and to make changes.

ip addr allows users to look at addresses and their properties, add new addresses, and delete old ones.

ip neighbor allows users to look at neighbor bindings and their properties, add new neighbor entries, and delete old ones.

ip rule allows users to look at the routing policies and change them.

ip route allows users to look at the routing table and change routing table rules.

ip tunnel allows users to look at the IP tunnels and their properties, and change them.

ip maddr allows users to look at the multicast addresses and their properties, and change them.

ip mroute allows users to set, change, or delete the multicast routing.

ip monitor allows users to continously monitor the state of devices, addresses and routes.

nstat

Shows network statistics.

routef

A component of ip route. This is for flushing the routing tables.

routel

A component of ip route. This is for listing the routing tables.

rtmon

Route monitoring utility.

rtstat

Route status utility

ss

Similar to the netstat command; shows active connections

tc

Traffic Controlling Executable; this is for Quality Of Service (QOS) and Class Of Service (COS) implementations

tc qdisc allows users to setup the queueing discipline

tc class allows users to setup classes based on the queuing discipline scheduling

tc estimator allows users to estimate the network flow into a network

tc filter allows users to setup the QOS/COS packet filtering

tc policy allows users to setup the QOS/COS policies

Perl-5.8.5

The Perl package contains the Practical Extraction and Report Language.

Approximate build time: 2.9 SBU

Required disk space: 143 MB

Perl installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Perl

To have full control over the way Perl is set up, run the interactive Configure script and hand-pick the way this package is built. If the defaults it auto-detects are suitable, prepare Perl for compilation with:

./configure.gnu --prefix=/usr -Dpager="/bin/less -isR"

The meaning of the configure option:

-Dpager="/bin/less -isR"

This corrects an error in the perldoc code with the invocation of the less program.

Compile the package:

make

To run the test suite, first create a basic /etc/hosts file which is needed by a couple of tests to resolve the network name localhost:

echo "127.0.0.1 localhost $(hostname)" > /etc/hosts

Now run the tests, if desired:

make test

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Perl

Installed programs: a2p, c2ph, dprofpp, enc2xs, find2perl, h2ph, h2xs, libnetcfg, perl, perl5.8.5 (link to perl), perlbug, perlcc, perldoc, perlivp, piconv, pl2pm, pod2html, pod2latex, pod2man, pod2text, pod2usage, podchecker, podselect, psed (link to s2p), pstruct (link to c2ph), s2p, splain, and xsubpp

Installed libraries: Several hundred which cannot all be listed here

Short Descriptions

a2p

Translates awk to Perl

c2ph

Dumps C structures as generated from cc -g -S

dprofpp

Displays Perl profile data

en2cxs

Builds a Perl extension for the Encode module from either Unicode Character Mappings or Tcl Encoding Files

find2perl

Translates find commands to Perl

h2ph

Converts .h C header files to .ph Perl header files

h2xs

Converts .h C header files to Perl extensions

libnetcfg

Can be used to configure the libnet

perl

Combines some of the best features of C, sed, awk and sh into a single swiss-army language

perl5.8.5

A hard link to perl

perlbug

Used to generate bug reports about Perl, or the modules that come with it, and mail them

perlcc

Generates executables from Perl programs

perldoc

Displays a piece of documentation in pod format that is embedded in the Perl installation tree or in a Perl script

perlivp

The Perl Installation Verification Procedure; it can be used to verify that Perl and its libraries have been installed correctly

piconv

A Perl version of the character encoding converter iconv

pl2pm

A rough tool for converting Perl4 .pl files to Perl5 .pm modules

pod2html

Converts files from pod format to HTML format

pod2latex

Converts files from pod format to LaTeX format

pod2man

Converts pod data to formatted *roff input

pod2text

Converts pod data to formatted ASCII text

pod2usage

Prints usage messages from embedded pod docs in files

podchecker

Checks the syntax of pod format documentation files

podselect

Displays selected sections of pod documentation

psed

A Perl version of the stream editor sed

pstruct

Dumps C structures as generated from cc -g -S stabs

s2p

Translates sed to Perl

splain

Is used to force verbose warning diagnostics in Perl

xsubpp

Converts Perl XS code into C code

Texinfo-4.7

The Texinfo package contains programs for reading, writing, and converting Info documents.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 17 MB

Texinfo installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

Installation of Texinfo

The following patch fixes a problem where the info program sometimes crashes when hitting the Delete key on the keyboard:

patch -Np1 -i ../texinfo-4.7-segfault-1.patch

Prepare Texinfo for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Optionally, install the components belonging in a TeX installation:

make TEXMF=/usr/share/texmf install-tex

The meaning of the make parameter:

TEXMF=/usr/share/texmf

The TEXMF makefile variable holds the location of the root of the TeX tree if, for example, a TeX package will be installed later.

The Info documentation system uses a plain text file to hold its list of menu entries. The file is located at /usr/share/info/dir. Unfortunately, due to occasional problems in the Makefiles of various packages, it can sometimes get out of step with the Info manuals installed on the system. If the /usr/share/info/dir file ever needs to be recreated, the following optional commands will accomplish the task:

cd /usr/share/info
rm dir
for f in *
do install-info $f dir 2>/dev/null
done

Contents of Texinfo

Installed programs: info, infokey, install-info, makeinfo, texi2dvi, and texindex

Short Descriptions

info

Used to read Info documents which are similar to man pages, but often go much deeper than just explaining all the command line options. For example, compare man bison and info bison.

infokey

Compiles a source file containing Info customizations into a binary format

install-info

Used to install Info files; it updates entries in the Info index file

makeinfo

Translates the given Texinfo source documents into info files, plain text, or HTML

texi2dvi

Used to format the given Texinfo document into a device-independent file that can be printed

texindex

Used to sort Texinfo index files

Autoconf-2.59

The Autoconf package contains programs for producing shell scripts that can automatically configure source code.

Approximate build time: 0.5 SBU

Required disk space: 7.7 MB

Autoconf installation depends on: Bash, Coreutils, Diffutils, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, and Sed

Installation of Autoconf

Prepare Autoconf for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check. This takes a long time, about 2 SBUs.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Autoconf

Installed programs: autoconf, autoheader, autom4te, autoreconf, autoscan, autoupdate, and ifnames

Short Descriptions

autoconf

Produces shell scripts that automatically configure software source code packages to adapt to many kinds of Unix-like systems. The configuration scripts it produces are independent—running them does not require the autoconf program.

autoheader

A tool for creating template files of C #define statements for configure to use

autom4te

A wrapper for the M4 macro processor

autoreconf

Automatically runs autoconf, autoheader, aclocal, automake, gettextize, and libtoolize in the correct order to save time when changes are made to autoconf and automake template files

autoscan

Helps to create a configure.in file for a software package; it examines the source files in a directory tree, searching them for common portability issues, and creates a configure.scan file that serves as as a preliminary configure.in file for the package

autoupdate

Modifies a configure.in file that still calls autoconf macros by their old names to use the current macro names

ifnames

Helps when writing configure.in files for a software package; it prints the identifiers that the package uses in C preprocessor conditionals. If a package has already been set up to have some portability, this program can help determine what configure needs to check for. It can also fill in gaps in a configure.in file generated by autoscan

Automake-1.9.1

The Automake package contains programs for generating Makefiles for use with Autoconf.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 6.8 MB

Automake installation depends on: Autoconf, Bash, Coreutils, Diffutils, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, and Sed

Installation of Automake

Prepare Automake for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check. This takes a long time, about 5 SBUs.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Automake

Installed programs: acinstall, aclocal, aclocal-1.9.1, automake, automake-1.9.1, compile, config.guess, config.sub, depcomp, elisp-comp, install-sh, mdate-sh, missing, mkinstalldirs, py-compile, symlink-tree, and ylwrap

Short Descriptions

acinstall

A script that installs aclocal-style M4 files

aclocal

Generates aclocal.m4 files based on the contents of configure.in files

aclocal-1.9.1

A hard link to aclocal

automake

A tool for automatically generating Makefile.in files from Makefile.am files. To create all the Makefile.in files for a package, run this program in the top-level directory. By scanning the configure.in file, it automatically finds each appropriate Makefile.am file and generate the corresponding Makefile.in file

automake-1.9.1

A hard link to automake

compile

A wrapper for compilers

config.guess

A script that attempts to guess the canonical triplet for the given build, host, or target architecture

config.sub

A configuration validation subroutine script

depcomp

A script for compiling a program so that dependency information is generated in addition to the desired output

elisp-comp

Byte-compiles Emacs Lisp code

install-sh

A script that installs a program, script, or data file

mdate-sh

A script that prints the modification time of a file or directory

missing

A script acting as a common stub for missing GNU programs during an installation

mkinstalldirs

A script that creates a directory tree

py-compile

Compiles a Python program

symlink-tree

A script to create a symlink tree of a directory tree

ylwrap

A wrapper for lex and yacc

Bash-3.0

The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.

Approximate build time: 1.2 SBU

Required disk space: 27 MB

Bash installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed.

Installation of Bash

The following patch is only necessary if Readline was not installed as suggested. This patch fixes a problem where Bash sometimes limits 33 characters to a line before wrapping to the next line. If Readline has been installed per the instructions, this patch is not necessary because the patch applied to the Readline package already resolves this issue.

patch -Np1 -i ../bash-3.0-display_wrap-1.patch

Prepare Bash for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin \
    --without-bash-malloc --with-installed-readline

The meaning of the configure option:

--with-installed-readline

This options tells Bash to use the readline library that is already installed on the system rather than using its own readline version.

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make tests.

Install the package:

make install

Run the newly compiled bash program (replacing the one that is currently being executed):

exec /bin/bash --login +h
[Note]

Note

The parameters used make the bash process an interactive login shell and continue to disable hashing so that new programs are found as they become available.

Contents of Bash

Installed programs: bash, bashbug, and sh (link to bash)

Short Descriptions

bash

A widely-used command interpreter; it performs many types of expansions and substitutions on a given command line before executing it, thus making this interpreter a powerful tool

bashbug

A shell script to help the user compose and mail bug reports concerning bash in a standard format

sh

A symlink to the bash program; when invoked as sh, bash tries to mimic the startup behavior of historical versions of sh as closely as possible, while conforming to the POSIX standard as well

File-4.10

The File package contains a utility for determining the type of files.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 6.3 MB

File installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Zlib

Installation of File

Prepare File for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Contents of File

Installed programs: file

Installed library: libmagic.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

file

Tries to classify each given file; it does this by performing several tests—file system tests, magic number tests, and language tests

libmagic

Contains routines for magic number recognition, used by the file program

Libtool-1.5.8

The Libtool package contains the GNU generic library support script. It wraps the complexity of using shared libraries in a consistent, portable interface.

Approximate build time: 1.5 SBU

Required disk space: 20 MB

Libtool installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Libtool

Prepare Libtool for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Libtool

Installed programs: libtool and libtoolize

Installed libraries: libltdl.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

libtool

Provides generalized library-building support services

libtoolize

Provides a standard way to add libtool support to a package

libltdl

Hides the various difficulties of dlopening libraries

Bzip2-1.0.2

The Bzip2 package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. Text files yield a much better compression than with the traditional gzip.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 3.0 MB

Bzip2 installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, and Make

Installation of Bzip2

Prepare Bzip2 for compilation with:

make -f Makefile-libbz2_so
make clean

The -f flag will cause Bzip2 to be built using a different Makefile file, in this case the Makefile-libbz2_so file, which creates a dynamic libbz2.so library and links the Bzip2 utilities against it.

Compile the package:

make

If reinstalling Bzip2, perform rm -f /usr/bin/bz* first, otherwise the following make install will fail.

Install the programs:

make install

Install the shared bzip2 binary into the /bin directory, make some necessary symbolic links, and clean up:

cp bzip2-shared /bin/bzip2
cp -a libbz2.so* /lib
ln -s ../../lib/libbz2.so.1.0 /usr/lib/libbz2.so
rm /usr/bin/{bunzip2,bzcat,bzip2}
ln -s bzip2 /bin/bunzip2
ln -s bzip2 /bin/bzcat

Contents of Bzip2

Installed programs: bunzip2 (link to bzip2), bzcat (link to bzip2), bzcmp, bzdiff, bzegrep, bzfgrep, bzgrep, bzip2, bzip2recover, bzless, and bzmore

Installed libraries: libbz2.a, libbz2.so (link to libbz2.so.1.0), libbz2.so.1.0 (link to libbz2.so.1.0.2), and libbz2.so.1.0.2

Short Descriptions

bunzip2

Decompresses bzipped files

bzcat

Decompresses to standard output

bzcmp

Runs cmp on bzipped files

bzdiff

Runs diff on bzipped files

bzgrep

Runs grep on bzipped files

bzegrep

Runs egrep on bzipped files

bzfgrep

Runs fgrep on bzipped files

bzip2

Compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm with Huffman coding; the compression rate is better than that achieved by more conventional compressors using “Lempel-Ziv” algorithms, like gzip

bzip2recover

Tries to recover data from damaged bzipped files

bzless

Runs less on bzipped files

bzmore

Runs more on bzipped files

libbz2*

The library implementing lossless, block-sorting data compression, using the Burrows-Wheeler algorithm

Diffutils-2.8.1

The Diffutils package contains programs that show the differences between files or directories.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 7.5 MB

Diffutils installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Diffutils

Prepare Diffutils for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Diffutils

Installed programs: cmp, diff, diff3, and sdiff

Short Descriptions

cmp

Compares two files and reports whether or in which bytes they differ

diff

Compares two files or directories and reports which lines in the files differ

diff3

Compares three files line by line

sdiff

Merges two files and interactively outputs the results

Kbd-1.12

The Kbd package contains key-table files and keyboard utilities.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 12 MB

Kbd installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, Flex, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Gzip, M4, Make, and Sed

Installation of Kbd

Prepare Kbd for compilation:

./configure

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Kbd

Installed programs: chvt, deallocvt, dumpkeys, fgconsole, getkeycodes, getunimap, kbd_mode, kbdrate, loadkeys, loadunimap, mapscrn, openvt, psfaddtable (link to psfxtable), psfgettable (link to psfxtable), psfstriptable (link to psfxtable), psfxtable, resizecons, setfont, setkeycodes, setleds, setlogcons, setmetamode, setvesablank, showconsolefont, showkey, unicode_start, and unicode_stop

Short Descriptions

chvt

Changes the foreground virtual terminal

deallocvt

Deallocates unused virtual terminals

dumpkeys

Dumps the keyboard translation tables

fgconsole

Prints the number of the active virtual terminal

getkeycodes

Prints the kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table

getunimap

Prints the currently used unimap

kbd_mode

Reports or sets the keyboard mode

kbdrate

Sets the keyboard repeat and delay rates

loadkeys

Loads the keyboard translation tables

loadunimap

Loads the kernel unicode-to-font mapping table

mapscrn

An obsolete program that used to load a user-defined output character mapping table into the console driver; this is now done by setfont

openvt

Starts a program on a new virtual terminal (VT)

psfaddtable

A link to psfxtable

psfgettable

A link to psfxtable

psfstriptable

A link to psfxtable

psfxtable

Handle Unicode character tables for console fonts

resizecons

Changes the kernel idea of the console size

setfont

Changes the Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA) and Video Graphics Array (VGA) fonts on the console

setkeycodes

Loads kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries; this is useful if there are unusual keys on the keyboard

setleds

Sets the keyboard flags and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

setlogcons

Sends kernel messages to the console

setmetamode

Defines the keyboard meta-key handling

setvesablank

Lets the user adjust the built-in hardware screensaver (a blank screen)

showconsolefont

Shows the current EGA/VGA console screen font

showkey

Reports the scancodes, keycodes, and ASCII codes of the keys pressed on the keyboard

unicode_start

Puts the keyboard and console in UNICODE mode. Never use it on LFS, because applications are not configured to support UNICODE.

unicode_stop

Reverts keyboard and console from UNICODE mode

E2fsprogs-1.35

The E2fsprogs package contains the utilities for handling the ext2 file system. It also supports the ext3 journaling file system.

Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU

Required disk space: 4.9 MB

E2fsprogs installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of E2fsprogs

It is recommended that E2fsprogs be built in a subdirectory of the source tree:

mkdir build
cd build

Prepare E2fsprogs for compilation:

../configure --prefix=/usr --with-root-prefix="" \
    --enable-elf-shlibs --disable-evms

The meaning of the configure options:

--with-root-prefix=""

Certain programs (such as the e2fsck program) are considered essential programs. When, for example, /usr is not mounted, these essential programs need to be available. They belong in directories like /lib and /sbin. If this option is not passed to E2fsprogs' configure, the programs are installed into the /usr directory, which is not where they should be.

--enable-elf-shlibs

This creates the shared libraries which some programs in this package use.

--disable-evms

This disables the building of the Enterprise Volume Management System (EVMS) plugin. This plugin is not up-to-date with the latest EVMS internal interfaces and EVMS is not installed as part of a base LFS system, so the plugin is not required. See the EVMS website at http://evms.sourceforge.net/ for more information regarding EVMS.

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install most of the package:

make install

Install the shared libraries:

make install-libs

Contents of E2fsprogs

Installed programs: badblocks, blkid, chattr, compile_et, debugfs, dumpe2fs, e2fsck, e2image, e2label, findfs, fsck, fsck.ext2, fsck.ext3, logsave, lsattr, mk_cmds, mke2fs, mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, mklost+found, resize2fs, tune2fs, and uuidgen.

Installed libraries: libblkid.[a,so], libcom_err.[a,so], libe2p.[a,so], libext2fs.[a,so], libss.[a,so], and libuuid.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

badblocks

Searches a device (usually a disk partition) for bad blocks

blkid

A command line utility to locate and print block device attributes

chattr

Changes the attributes of files on an ext2 file system; it also changes ext3 file systems, the journaling version of ext2 file systems

compile_et

An error table compiler; it converts a table of error-code names and messages into a C source file suitable for use with the com_err library

debugfs

A file system debugger; it can be used to examine and change the state of an ext2 file system

dumpe2fs

Prints the super block and blocks group information for the file system present on a given device

e2fsck

Is used to check, and optionally repair ext2 file systems and ext3 file systems

e2image

Is used to save critical ext2 file system data to a file

e2label

Displays or changes the file system label on the ext2 file system present on a given device

findfs

Finds a file system by label or Universally Unique Identifier (UUID)

fsck

Is used to check, and optionally repair, file systems

fsck.ext2

By default checks ext2 file systems

fsck.ext3

By default checks ext3 file systems

logsave

Saves the output of a command in a log file

lsattr

Lists the attributes of files on a second extended file system

mk_cmds

Converts a table of command names and helps messages into a C source file suitable for use with the libss subsystem library

mke2fs

Is used to create a second extended file system on the given device

mkfs.ext2

By default creates ext2 file systems

mkfs.ext3

By default creates ext3 file systems

mklost+found

Used to create a lost+found directory on an ext2 file system; it pre-allocates disk blocks to this directory to lighten the task of e2fsck

resize2fs

Can be used to enlarge or shrink an ext2 file system

tune2fs

Adjusts tunable file system parameters on an ext2 file system

uuidgen

Creates new UUIDs. Each new UUID can reasonably be considered unique among all UUIDs created, on the local system and on other systems, in the past and in the future

libblkid

Contains routines for device identification and token extraction

libcom_err

The common error display routine

libe2p

Used by dumpe2fs, chattr, and lsattr

libext2fs

Contains routines to enable user-level programs to manipulate an ext2 file system

libss

Used by debugfs

libuuid

Contains routines for generating unique identifiers for objects that may be accessible beyond the local system

Grep-2.5.1

The Grep package contains programs for searching through files.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 5.8 MB

Grep installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Make, Sed, and Texinfo

Installation of Grep

Prepare Grep for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin --with-included-regex

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Grep

Installed programs: egrep (link to grep), fgrep (link to grep), and grep

Short Descriptions

egrep

Prints lines matching an extended regular expression

fgrep

Prints lines matching a list of fixed strings

grep

Prints lines matching a basic regular expression

Grub-0.95

The Grub package contains the Grand Unified Bootloader.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 10 MB

Grub installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

Installation of Grub

This package is known to have issues when its default optimization flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any environment variables that override default optimizations have been defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building Grub.

Prepare Grub for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Note that the test results will always show the error “ufs2_stage1_5 is too big.” This is due to a compiler issue, but can be ignored unless you plan to boot from an UFS partition. The partitions are normally only used by Sun workstations.

Install the package:

make install
mkdir /boot/grub
cp /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/stage{1,2} /boot/grub

Replace i386-pc with whatever directory is appropriate for the hardware in use.

The i386-pc directory contains a number of *stage1_5 files, different ones for different file systems. Review the files available and copy the appropriate ones to the /boot/grub directory. Most users will copy the e2fs_stage1_5 and/or reiserfs_stage1_5 files.

Contents of Grub

Installed programs: grub, grub-install, grub-md5-crypt, grub-terminfo, and mbchk

Short Descriptions

grub

The Grand Unified Bootloader's command shell

grub-install

Installs GRUB on the given device

grub-md5-crypt

Encrypts a password in MD5 format

grub-terminfo

Generates a terminfo command from a terminfo name; it can be employed if an unknown terminal is being used

mbchk

Checks the format of a multi-boot kernel

Gzip-1.3.5

The Gzip package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 2.6 MB

Gzip installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Gzip

Prepare Gzip for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

The gzexe script has the location of the gzip binary hard-wired into it. Because the location of the binary is changed later, the following command ensures that the new location gets placed into the script:

sed -i 's@"BINDIR"@/bin@g' gzexe.in

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Move the programs to the /bin directory:

mv /usr/bin/gzip /bin
rm /usr/bin/{gunzip,zcat}
ln -s gzip /bin/gunzip
ln -s gzip /bin/zcat
ln -s gunzip /bin/uncompress

Contents of Gzip

Installed programs: gunzip (link to gzip), gzexe, gzip, uncompress (link to gunzip), zcat (link to gzip), zcmp, zdiff, zegrep, zfgrep, zforce, zgrep, zless, zmore, and znew

Short Descriptions

gunzip

Decompresses gzipped files

gzexe

Creates self-uncompressing executable files

gzip

Compresses the given files using Lempel-Ziv (LZ77) coding

uncompress

Decompresses compressed files

zcat

Uncompresses the given gzipped files to standard output

zcmp

Runs cmp on gzipped files

zdiff

Runs diff on gzipped files

zegrep

Runs egrep on gzipped files

zfgrep

Runs fgrep on gzipped files

zforce

Forces a .gz extension on all given files that are gzipped files, so that gzip will not compress them again; this can be useful when file names were truncated during a file transfer

zgrep

Runs grep on gzipped files

zless

Runs less on gzipped files

zmore

Runs more on gzipped files

znew

Re-compresses files from compress format to gzip format—.Z to .gz

Man-1.5o

The Man package contains programs for finding and viewing manual pages.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 1.9MB

Man installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Man

Three adjustments need to be made to the sources of Man.

The first is a patch which allows Man to work better with recent releases of Groff. In particular, man pages will now display using the full terminal width instead of being limited to 80 characters:

patch -Np1 -i ../man-1.5o-80cols-1.patch

The second is a sed substitution to add the -R switch to the PAGER variable so that escape sequences are properly handled by Less:

sed -i 's@-is@&R@g' configure

The third is also a sed substitution to comment out the “MANPATH /usr/man” line in the man.conf file to prevent redundant results when using programs such as whatis:

sed -i 's@MANPATH./usr/man@#&@g' src/man.conf.in

Prepare Man for compilation:

./configure -confdir=/etc

The meaning of the configure options:

-confdir=/etc

This tells the man program to look for the man.conf configuration file in the /etc directory.

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install
[Note]

Note

To disable Select Graphic Rendition (SGR) escape sequences, edit the man.conf file and add the -c switch to the NROFF variable.

If the character set uses 8-bit characters, search for the line beginning with “NROFF” in /etc/man.conf, and verify that it looks as follows:

NROFF  /usr/bin/nroff -Tlatin1 -mandoc

Note that “latin1” should be used even if it is not the character set of the locale. The reason is that, according to the specification, groff has no means of typesetting characters outside International Organization for Standards (ISO) 8859-1 without some strange escape codes. When formatting manual pages, groff thinks that they are in the ISO 8859-1 encoding and this -Tlatin1 switch tells groff to use the same encoding for output. Since groff does no recoding of input characters, the formatted result is really in the same encoding as input, and therefore it is usable as the input for a pager.

This does not solve the problem of a non-working man2dvi program for localized manual pages in non-ISO 8859-1 locales. Also, it does not work with multibyte character sets. The first problem does not currently have a solution. The second issue is not of concern because the LFS installation does not support multibyte character sets.

Additional information with regards to the compression of man and info pages can be found in the BLFS book at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/cvs/postlfs/ compressdoc.html.

Contents of Man

Installed programs: apropos, makewhatis, man, man2dvi, man2html, and whatis

Short Descriptions

apropos

Searches the whatis database and displays the short descriptions of system commands that contain a given string

makewhatis

Builds the whatis database; it reads all the manual pages in the manpath and writes the name and a short description in the whatis database for each page

man

Formats and displays the requested on-line manual page

man2dvi

Converts a manual page into dvi format

man2html

Converts a manual page into HTML

whatis

Searches the whatis database and displays the short descriptions of system commands that contain the given keyword as a separate word

Make-3.80

The Make package contains a program for compiling large packages.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 8.8 MB

Make installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, and Sed

Installation of Make

Prepare Make for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Make

Installed program: make

Short Descriptions

make

Automatically determines which pieces of a large package need to be recompiled and then issues the relevant commands

Module-Init-Tools-3.0

The Module-Init-Tools package contains programs for handling kernel modules in Linux kernels greater than or equal to version 2.5.47.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 650 KB

Module-Init-Tools installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, Flex, GCC, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

Installation of Module-Init-Tools

Prepare Module-Init-Tools for compilation:

./configure --prefix="" --enable-zlib

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Module-Init-Tools

Installed programs: depmod, genksyms, insmod, insmod_ksymoops_clean, kallsyms (link to insmod), kernelversion, ksyms (link to insmod), lsmod (link to insmod), modinfo, modprobe (link to insmod), and rmmod (link to insmod)

Short Descriptions

depmod

Creates a dependency file based on the symbols it finds in the existing set of modules; this dependency file is used by modprobe to automatically load the required modules

genksyms

Generates symbol version information

insmod

Installs a loadable module in the running kernel

insmod_ksymoops_clean

Deletes saved ksyms and modules not accessed for two days

kallsyms

Extracts all kernel symbols for debugging

kernelversion

Reports the major version of the running kernel

ksyms

Displays exported kernel symbols

lsmod

Lists currently loaded modules

modinfo

Examines an object file associated with a kernel module and displays any information that it can glean

modprobe

Uses a dependency file, created by depmod, to automatically load relevant modules

rmmod

Unloads modules from the running kernel

Patch-2.5.4

The Patch package contains a program for modifying files.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 1.9 MB

Patch installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Patch

Prepare Patch for compilation. The preprocessor flag -D_GNU_SOURCE is only needed on the PowerPC platform. It can be left it out on other architectures:

CPPFLAGS=-D_GNU_SOURCE ./configure --prefix=/usr

Compile the package:

make

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Patch

Installed program: patch

Short Descriptions

patch

Modifies files according to a patch file. A patch file is normally a difference listing created with the diff program. By applying these differences to the original files, patch creates the patched versions.

Procps-3.2.3

The Procps package contains programs for monitoring processes.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 6.2 MB

Procps installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Ncurses

Installation of Procps

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Procps

Installed programs: free, kill, pgrep, pkill, pmap, ps, skill, snice, sysctl, tload, top, uptime, vmstat, w, and watch

Installed library: libproc.so

Short Descriptions

free

Reports the amount of free and used memory (both physical and swap memory) in the system

kill

Sends signals to processes

pgrep

Looks up processes based on their name and other attributes

pkill

Signals processes based on their name and other attributes

pmap

Reports the memory map of the given process

ps

Lists the current running processes

skill

Sends signals to processes matching the given criteria

snice

Changes the scheduling priority of processes matching the given criteria

sysctl

Modifies kernel parameters at run time

tload

Prints a graph of the current system load average

top

Displays the top CPU processes; it provides an ongoing look at processor activity in real time

uptime

Reports how long the system has been running, how many users are logged on, and the system load averages

vmstat

Reports virtual memory statistics, giving information about processes, memory, paging, block Input/Output (IO), traps, and CPU activity

w

Shows which users are currently logged on, where, and since when

watch

Runs a given command repeatedly, displaying the first screen-full of its output; this allows a user to watch the output change over time

libproc

Contains the functions used by most programs in this package

Psmisc-21.5

The Psmisc package contains programs for displaying information on processes.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 2.2 MB

Psmisc installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

Installation of Psmisc

Prepare Psmisc for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --exec-prefix=""

The meaning of the configure option:

--exec-prefix=""

This causes the binaries to be installed in /bin instead of /usr/bin. Because the Psmisc programs are often used in bootscripts, they should be available when the /usr file system is not mounted.

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

There is no reason for the pstree and pstree.x11 programs to reside in /bin. Therefore, move them to /usr/bin. Also, there is no need for pstree.x11 to exist as a separate program. Make it a symbolic link to pstree instead:

mv /bin/pstree* /usr/bin
ln -sf pstree /usr/bin/pstree.x11

By default, Psmisc's pidof program is not installed. This usually is not a problem because it is installed later in the Sysvinit package, which provides a better pidof program. If Sysvinit will not be used for a particular system, complete the installation of Psmisc by creating the following symlink:

ln -s killall /bin/pidof

Contents of Psmisc

Installed programs: fuser, killall, pstree, and pstree.x11 (link to pstree)

Short Descriptions

fuser

Reports the Process IDs (PIDs) of processes that use the given files or file systems

killall

Kills processes by name; it sends a signal to all processes running any of the given commands

pstree

Displays running processes as a tree

pstree.x11

Same as pstree, except that it waits for confirmation before exiting

Shadow-4.0.4.1

The Shadow package contains programs for handling passwords in a secure way.

Approximate build time: 0.4 SBU

Required disk space: 11 MB

Shadow installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Shadow

Prepare Shadow for compilation:

./configure --libdir=/usr/lib --enable-shared

Work around a problem that prevents Shadow's internationalization from working:

echo '#define HAVE_SETLOCALE 1' >> config.h

Shadow incorrectly declares the malloc() function, causing compilation failure. Fix this:

sed -i '/extern char/d' libmisc/xmalloc.c

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Shadow uses two files to configure authentication settings for the system. Install these two config files:

cp etc/{limits,login.access} /etc

Instead of using the default crypt method, use the more secure MD5 method of password encryption, which also allows passwords longer than 8 characters. It is also necessary to change the obsolete /var/spool/mail location for user mailboxes that Shadow uses by default to the /var/mail location used currently. Both of these can be accomplished by changing the relevant configuration file while copying it to its destination:

cp etc/login.defs.linux /etc/login.defs
sed -i -e 's@#MD5_CRYPT_ENAB.no@MD5_CRYPT_ENAB yes@' \
    -e 's@/var/spool/mail@/var/mail@' /etc/login.defs

Move some misplaced symlinks/programs to their proper locations:

mv /bin/sg /usr/bin
mv /bin/vigr /usr/sbin
mv /usr/bin/passwd /bin

Move Shadow's dynamic libraries to a more appropriate location:

mv /usr/lib/lib{shadow,misc}.so.0* /lib

Because some packages expect to find the just-moved libraries in /usr/lib, create the following symlinks:

ln -sf ../../lib/libshadow.so.0 /usr/lib/libshadow.so
ln -sf ../../lib/libmisc.so.0 /usr/lib/libmisc.so

The -D option of the useradd program requires the /etc/default directory for it to work properly:

mkdir /etc/default

Coreutils has already installed a better groups program in /usr/bin. Remove the one installed by Shadow:

rm /bin/groups

Configuring Shadow

This package contains utilities to add, modify, and delete users and groups; set and change their passwords; and perform other administrative tasks. For a full explanation of what password shadowing means, see the doc/HOWTO file within the unpacked source tree. If using Shadow support, keep in mind that programs which need to verify passwords (display managers, FTP programs, pop3 daemons, etc.) must be shadow-compliant. That is, they need to be able to work with shadowed passwords.

To enable shadowed passwords, run the following command:

pwconv

To enable shadowed group passwords, run:

grpconv

Under normal circumstances, passwords will not have been created yet. However, if returning to this section later to enable shadowing, reset any current user passwords with the passwd command or any group passwords with the gpasswd command.

Setting the root password

Choose a password for user root and set it by running:

passwd root

Contents of Shadow

Installed programs: chage, chfn, chpasswd, chsh, expiry, faillog, gpasswd, groupadd, groupdel, groupmod, groups, grpck, grpconv, grpunconv, lastlog, login, logoutd, mkpasswd, newgrp, newusers, passwd, pwck, pwconv, pwunconv, sg (link to newgrp), useradd, userdel, usermod, vigr (link to vipw), and vipw

Installed libraries: libshadow[.a,so]

Short Descriptions

chage

Used to change the maximum number of days between obligatory password changes

chfn

Used to change a user's full name and other info

chpasswd

Used to update the passwords of an entire series of user accounts

chsh

Used to change a user's default login shell

expiry

Checks and enforces the current password expiration policy

faillog

Is used to examine the log of login failures, to set a maximum number of failures before an account is blocked, or to reset the failure count

gpasswd

Is used to add and delete members and administrators to groups

groupadd

Creates a group with the given name

groupdel

Deletes the group with the given name

groupmod

Is used to modify the given group's name or GID

groups

Reports the groups of which the given users are members

grpck

Verifies the integrity of the group files /etc/group and /etc/gshadow

grpconv

Creates or updates the shadow group file from the normal group file

grpunconv

Updates /etc/group from /etc/gshadow and then deletes the latter

lastlog

Reports the most recent login of all users or of a given user

login

Is used by the system to let users sign on

logoutd

Is a daemon used to enforce restrictions on log-on time and ports

mkpasswd

Generates random passwords

newgrp

Is used to change the current GID during a login session

newusers

Is used to create or update an entire series of user accounts

passwd

Is used to change the password for a user or group account

pwck

Verifies the integrity of the password files /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow

pwconv

Creates or updates the shadow password file from the normal password file

pwunconv

Updates /etc/passwd from /etc/shadow and then deletes the latter

sg

Executes a given command while the user's GID is set to that of the given group

su

Runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs

useradd

Creates a new user with the given name, or updates the default new-user information

userdel

Deletes the given user account

usermod

Is used to modify the given user's login name, User Identification (UID), shell, initial group, home directory, etc.

vigr

Edits the /etc/group or /etc/gshadow files

vipw

Edits the /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow files

libshadow

Contains functions used by most programs in this package

Sysklogd-1.4.1

The Sysklogd package contains programs for logging system messages, such as those given by the kernel when unusual things happen.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 0.5 MB

Sysklogd installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, and Make

Installation of Sysklogd

Sysklogd has issues with the Linux 2.6 kernel series. Fix these issues by applying the following patch:

patch -Np1 -i ../sysklogd-1.4.1-kernel_headers-1.patch

There is also a race condition in the signal handling logic, and this sometimes confuses the sysklogd initscript. Fix this bug by applying another patch:

patch -Np1 -i ../sysklogd-1.4.1-signal-1.patch

Compile the package:

make

Install the package:

make install

Configuring Sysklogd

Create a new file /etc/syslog.conf by running the following:

cat > /etc/syslog.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/syslog.conf

auth,authpriv.* -/var/log/auth.log
*.*;auth,authpriv.none -/var/log/sys.log
daemon.* -/var/log/daemon.log
kern.* -/var/log/kern.log
mail.* -/var/log/mail.log
user.* -/var/log/user.log
*.emerg *

# End /etc/syslog.conf
EOF

Contents of Sysklogd

Installed programs: klogd and syslogd

Short Descriptions

klogd

A system daemon for intercepting and logging kernel messages

syslogd

Logs the messages that system programs offer for logging

Sysvinit-2.85

The Sysvinit package contains programs for controlling the startup, running, and shutdown of the system.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 0.9 MB

Sysvinit installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, and Make

Installation of Sysvinit

Sysvinit-2.85 contains a “buffer overflow” bug. Under some conditions, it modifies the values of environment variables. Fix this with:

patch -Np1 -i ../sysvinit-2.85-proclen-1.patch

When run-levels are changed (for example, when halting the system), init sends termination signals to those processes that init itself started and that should not be running in the new run-level. While doing this, init outputs messages like “Sending processes the TERM signal” which seem to imply that it is sending these signals to all currently running processes. To avoid this misinterpretation, modify the source so that these messages read like “Sending processes started by init the TERM signal” instead:

sed -i 's@Sending processes@& started by init@g' \
    src/init.c

Compile the package:

make -C src

Install the package:

make -C src install

Configuring Sysvinit

Create a new file /etc/inittab by running the following:

cat > /etc/inittab << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/inittab

id:3:initdefault:

si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc sysinit

l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 0
l1:S1:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 1
l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 2
l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 3
l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 4
l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 5
l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 6

ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now

su:S016:once:/sbin/sulogin

1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty1 9600
2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty2 9600
3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty3 9600
4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty4 9600
5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty5 9600
6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty6 9600

# End /etc/inittab
EOF

The -I '\033(K' option tells agetty to send this escape sequence to the terminal before doing anything else. This escape sequence switches the console character set to a user-defined one, which can be modified by running the setfont program. The console initscript from the LFS-Bootscripts package calls the setfont program during system startup. Sending this escape sequence is necessary for people who use non-ISO 8859-1 screen fonts, but it does not effect native English speakers.

Contents of Sysvinit

Installed programs: halt, init, killall5, last, lastb (link to last), mesg, pidof (link to killall5), poweroff (link to halt), reboot (link to halt), runlevel, shutdown, sulogin, telinit (link to init), utmpdump, and wall

Short Descriptions

halt

Normally invokes shutdown with the -h option, except when already in run-level 0, then it tells the kernel to halt the system; it notes in the file /var/log/wtmp that the system is being brought down

init

The first process to be started when the kernel has initialized the hardware which takes over the boot process and starts all the proceses it is instructed to

killall5

Sends a signal to all processes, except the processes in its own session so it will not kill the shell running the script that called it

last

Shows which users last logged in (and out), searching back through the /var/log/wtmp file; it also shows system boots, shutdowns, and run-level changes

lastb

Shows the failed login attempts, as logged in /var/log/btmp

mesg

Controls whether other users can send messages to the current user's terminal

pidof

Reports the PIDs of the given programs

poweroff

Tells the kernel to halt the system and switch off the computer (see halt)

reboot

Tells the kernel to reboot the system (see halt)

runlevel

Reports the previous and the current run-level, as noted in the last run-level record in /var/run/utmp

shutdown

Brings the system down in a secure way, signaling all processes and notifying all logged-in users

sulogin

Allows root to log in; it is normally invoked by init when the system goes into single user mode

telinit

Tells init which run-level to change to

utmpdump

Displays the content of the given login file in a more user-friendly format

wall

Writes a message to all logged-in users

Tar-1.14

The Tar package contains an archiving program.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 10 MB

Tar installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

Installation of Tar

Prepare Tar for compilation:

./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin --libexecdir=/usr/sbin

Compile the package:

make

To test the results, issue: make check.

Install the package:

make install

Contents of Tar

Installed programs: rmt and tar

Short Descriptions

rmt

Remotely manipulates a magnetic tape drive through an interprocess communication connection

tar

Creates and extracts files from archives, also known as tarballs

Udev-030

The Udev package contains programs for dynamic creation of device nodes.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 5.2 MB

Udev installation depends on: Coreutils and Make

Installation of Udev

Compile the package:

make udevdir=/dev
udevdir=/dev

This tells udev in which directory devices nodes are to be created.

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make udevdir=/dev install

Udev's configuration is far from ideal by default, so install the configuration files here:

cp ../udev-config-2.permissions \
    /etc/udev/permissions.d/25-lfs.permissions
cp ../udev-config-1.rules /etc/udev/rules.d/25-lfs.rules

Contents of Udev

Installed programs: udev, udevd, udevsend, udevstart, udevinfo, and udevtest

Installed directory: /etc/udev

Short Descriptions

udev

Creates device nodes in /dev or renames network interfaces (not in LFS) in response to hotplug events

udevd

A daemon that reorders hotplug events before submitting them to udev, thus avoiding various race conditions

udevsend

Delivers hotplug events to udevd

udevstart

Creates device nodes in /dev that correspond to drivers compiled directly into the kernel; it performs that task by simulating hotplug events presumably dropped by the kernel before invocation of this program (e.g., because the root filesystem has not been mounted) and submitting such synthetic hotplug events to udev

udevinfo

Allows users to query the udev database for information on any device currently present on the system; it also provides a way to query any device in the sysfs tree to help create udev rules

udevtest

Simulates a udev run for the given device, and prints out the name of the node the real udev would have created or (not in LFS) the name of the renamed network interface

/etc/udev

Contains udev configuation files, device permissions, and rules for device naming

Util-linux-2.12b

The Util-linux package contains miscellaneous utility programs. Among them are utilities for handling file systems, consoles, partitions, and messages.

Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU

Required disk space: 16 MB

Util-linux installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, Sed, and Zlib

FHS compliance notes

The FHS recommends using the /var/lib/hwclock directory instead of the usual /etc directory as the location for the adjtime file. To make the hwclock program FHS-compliant, run the following:

sed -i 's@etc/adjtime@var/lib/hwclock/adjtime@g' \
    hwclock/hwclock.c
mkdir -p /var/lib/hwclock

Installation of Util-linux

GCC-3.4.1 does not properly compile sfdisk if the default optimization level is used. The following patch corrects the problem:

patch -Np1 -i ../util-linux-2.12b-sfdisk-2.patch

Prepare Util-linux for compilation:

./configure

Compile the package:

make HAVE_KILL=yes HAVE_SLN=yes

The meaning of the make parameters:

HAVE_KILL=yes

This prevents the kill program (already installed by Procps) from being built and installed again.

HAVE_SLN=yes

This prevents the sln program (a statically linked version of ln already installed by Glibc) from being built and installed again.

This package does not come with a test suite.

Install the package:

make HAVE_KILL=yes HAVE_SLN=yes install

Contents of Util-linux

Installed programs: agetty, arch, blockdev, cal, cfdisk, chkdupexe, col, colcrt, colrm, column, ctrlaltdel, cytune, ddate, dmesg, elvtune, fdformat, fdisk, fsck.cramfs, fsck.minix, getopt, hexdump, hwclock, ipcrm, ipcs, isosize, line, logger, look, losetup, mcookie, mkfs, mkfs.bfs, mkfs.cramfs, mkfs.minix, mkswap, more, mount, namei, pg, pivot_root, ramsize (link to rdev), raw, rdev, readprofile, rename, renice, rev, rootflags (link to rdev), script, setfdprm, setsid, setterm, sfdisk, swapdev, swapoff (link to swapon), swapon, tunelp, ul, umount, vidmode (link to rdev), whereis, and write

Short Descriptions

agetty

Opens a tty port, prompts for a login name, and then invokes the login program

arch

Reports the machine's architecture

blockdev

Allows users to call block device ioctls from the command line

cal

Displays a simple calendar

cfdisk

Manipulates the partition table of the given device

chkdupexe

Finds duplicate executables

col

Filters out reverse line feeds

colcrt

Filters nroff output for terminals that lack some capabilities, such as overstriking and half-lines

colrm

Filters out the given columns

column

Formats a given file into multiple columns

ctrlaltdel

Sets the function of the Ctrl+Alt+Del key combination to a hard or a soft reset

cytune

Tunes the parameters of the serial line drivers for Cyclades cards

ddate

Gives the Discordian date or converts the given Gregorian date to a Discordian one

dmesg

Dumps the kernel boot messages

elvtune

Tunes the performance and interactivity of a block device

fdformat

Low-level formats a floppy disk

fdisk

Manipulates the partition table of the given device

fsck.cramfs

Performs a consistency check on the Cramfs file system on the given device

fsck.minix

Performs a consistency check on the Minix file system on the given device

getopt

Parses options in the given command line

hexdump

Dumps the given file in hexadecimal or in another given format

hwclock

Reads or sets the system's hardware clock, also called the Real-Time Clock (RTC)) or Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) clock

ipcrm

Removes the given Inter-Process Communication (IPC) resource

ipcs

Provides IPC status information

isosize

Reports the size of an iso9660 file system

line

Copies a single line

logger

Enters the given message into the system log

look

Displays lines that begin with the given string

losetup

Sets up and controls loop devices

mcookie

Generates magic cookies (128-bit random hexadecimal numbers) for xauth

mkfs

Builds a file system on a device (usually a hard disk partition)

mkfs.bfs

Creates an Santa Cruz Operations (SCO) bfs file system

mkfs.cramfs

Creates a cramfs file system

mkfs.minix

Creates a Minix file system

mkswap

Initializes the given device or file to be used as a swap area

more

A filter for paging through text one screen at a time

mount

Attaches the file system on the given device to a specified directory in the file-system tree

namei

Shows the symbolic links in the given pathnames

pg

Displays a text file one screen full at a time

pivot_root

Makes the given file system the new root file system of the current process

ramsize

Sets the size of the RAM disk in a bootable image

raw

Used to bind a Linux raw character device to a block device

rdev

Queries and sets the root device, among other things, in a bootable image

readprofile

Reads kernel profiling information

rename

Renames the given files, replacing a given string with another

renice

Alters the priority of running processes

rev

Reverses the lines of a given file

rootflags

Sets the rootflags in a bootable image

script

Makes a typescript of a terminal session

setfdprm

Sets user-provided floppy disk parameters

setsid

Runs the given program in a new session

setterm

Sets terminal attributes

sfdisk

A disk partition table manipulator

swapdev

Sets the swap device in a bootable image

swapoff

Disables devices and files for paging and swapping

swapon

Enables devices and files for paging and swapping

tunelp

Tunes the parameters of the line printer

ul

A filter for translating underscores into escape sequences indicating underlining for the terminal in use

umount

Disconnects a file system from the system's file tree

vidmode

Sets the video mode in a bootable image

whereis

Reports the location of binary, the source, and the manual page for the given command

write

Sends a message to the given user if that user has not disabled receipt of such messages

About Debugging Symbols

Most programs and libraries are, by default, compiled with debugging symbols included (with gcc's -g option). This means that when debugging a program or library that was compiled with debugging information included, the debugger can provide not only memory addresses, but also the names of the routines and variables.

However, the inclusion of these debugging symbols enlarges a program or library significantly. The following is an example of the amount of space these symbols occupy:

  • a bash binary with debugging symbols: 1200 KB

  • a bash binary without debugging symbols: 480 KB

  • Glibc and GCC files (/lib and /usr/lib) with debugging symbols: 87 MB

  • Glibc and GCC files without debugging symbols: 16 MB

Sizes may vary depending on which compiler and C library were used, but when comparing programs with and without debugging symbols, the difference will usually be a factor between two and five.

Because most users will never use a debugger on their system software, a lot of disk space can be regained by removing these symbols. The next section shows how to strip all debugging symbols from the programs and libraries. Additional information on system optimization can be found at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/ optimization.txt.

Stripping Again

If the intended user is not a programmer and does not plan to do any debugging on the system software, the system size can be decreased by about 200 MB by removing the debugging symbols from binaries and libraries. This causes no inconvenience other than not being able to debug the software fully anymore.

Most people who use the command mentioned below do not experience any difficulties. However, it is easy to make a typo and render the new system unusable, so before running the strip command, it is a good idea to make a backup of the current situation.

Before performing the stripping, take special care to ensure that none of the binaries that are about to be stripped are running. If unsure whether the user entered chroot with the command given in the section called “Entering the Chroot Environment” first exit from chroot:

logout

Then reenter it with:

chroot $LFS /tools/bin/env -i \
    HOME=/root TERM=$TERM PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
    PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin \
    /tools/bin/bash --login

Now the binaries and libraries can be safely stripped:

/tools/bin/find /{,usr/}{bin,lib,sbin} -type f \
   -exec /tools/bin/strip --strip-debug '{}' ';'

A large number of files will be reported as having their file format not recognized. These warnings can be safely ignored. These warnings indicate that those files are scripts instead of binaries.

If disk space is very tight, the --strip-all option can be used on the binaries in /{,usr/}{bin,sbin} to gain several more megabytes. Do not use this option on libraries—they will be destroyed.

Cleaning Up

From now on, when reentering the chroot environment after exiting, use the following modified chroot command:

chroot "$LFS" /usr/bin/env -i \
    HOME=/root TERM="$TERM" PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
    PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin \
    /bin/bash --login

The reason for this is that, since the programs in /tools are no longer needed, the directory can be deleted to regain space. Before actually deleting the directory, exit from chroot and reenter it with the above command. Also, before removing /tools, tar it up and store it in a safe place in case another LFS system will be built.

[Note]

Note

Removing /tools will also remove the temporary copies of Tcl, Expect, and DejaGNU which were used for running the toolchain tests. To use these programs later on, they will need to be recompiled and re-installed. The installation instructions are the same as in Chapter 5, apart from changing the prefix from /tools to /usr. The BLFS book discusses a slightly different approach to installing Tcl (see http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/).

The packages and patches stored in /sources can also be moved to a more usual location, such as /usr/src/packages. The entire directory can also be deleted if its contents have been burned to a CD.

Chapter 7. Setting Up System Bootscripts

Introduction

This chapter details how to install the bootscripts and set them up properly. Most of these scripts will work without modification, but a few require additional configuration files because they deal with hardware-dependent information.

System-V style init scripts are employed in this book because they are widely used. For additional options, a hint detailing the BSD style init setup is available at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/bsd-init.txt. Searching the LFS mailing lists for “depinit” will also offer additional choices.

If using an alternate style of init scripts, skip this chapter and move on to Chapter 8.

LFS-Bootscripts-2.2.2

The LFS-Bootscripts package contains a set of bootscripts.

Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU

Required disk space: 0.3 MB

LFS-Bootscripts installation depends on: Bash and Coreutils

Installation of LFS-Bootscripts

Install the package:

make install

Contents of LFS-bootscripts

Installed scripts: checkfs, cleanfs, console, functions, halt, ifdown, ifup, localnet, mountfs, mountkernfs, network, rc, reboot, sendsignals, setclock, static, swap, sysklogd, template, and udev

Short Descriptions

checkfs

Checks the file systems before they are mounted (with the exception of journal and network based file systems)

cleanfs

Removes files that should not be preserved between reboots, such as those in /var/run/ and /var/lock/; it re-creates /var/run/utmp and removes the possibly present /etc/nologin, /fastboot, and /forcefsck files

console

Loads the keymap table specified as proper for the keyboard layout; it also sets the screen font

functions

Contains functions shared among different scripts, such as error and status checking

halt

Halts the system

ifdown

Assists the network script with network devices

ifup

Assists the network script with network devices

localnet

Sets up the system's hostname and local loopback device

mountfs

Mounts all file systems, except ones that are marked noauto or are network based

mountkernfs

Is used to mount kernel-provided file systems, such as proc

network

Sets up network interfaces, such as network cards, and sets up the default gateway (where applicable)

rc

The master run-level control script; it is responsible for running all other scripts one-by-one, in a sequence determined by the name of the symbolic links being processed

reboot

Reboots the system

sendsignals

Makes sure every process is terminated before the system reboots or halts

setclock

Resets the kernel clock to local time in case the hardware clock is not set to UTC time

static

Provides the functionality needed to assign a static Internet Protocol (IP) address to a network interface

swap

Enables and disables swap files and partitions

sysklogd

Starts and stops the system and kernel log daemons

template

A template to create custom bootscripts for other daemons

udev

Sets up udev and create the devices nodes in /dev

How Do These Bootscripts Work?

Linux uses a special booting facility named SysVinit that is based on a concept of run-levels. It can be quite different from one system to another, so it cannot be assumed that because things worked in <insert distro name>, they should work the same in LFS too. LFS has its own way of doing things, but it respects generally accepted standards.

SysVinit (which will be referred to as “init” from now on) works using a run-levels scheme. There are seven (from 0 to 6) run-levels (actually, there are more run-levels, but they are for special cases and are generally not used. The init man page describes those details), and each one of those corresponds to the actions the computer is supposed to perform when it starts up. The default run-level is 3. Here are the descriptions of the different run-levels as they are implemented:

0: halt the computer
1: single-user mode
2: multi-user mode without networking
3: multi-user mode with networking
4: reserved for customization, otherwise does the same as 3
5: same as 4, it is usually used for GUI login (like X's  xdm or KDE's  kdm)
6: reboot the computer

The command used to change run-levels is init [runlevel], where [runlevel] is the target run-level. For example, to reboot the computer, a user would issue the init 6 command. The reboot command is an alias for it, as is the halt command an alias for init 0.

There are a number of directories under /etc/rc.d that look like rc?.d (where ? is the number of the run-level) and rcsysinit.d, all containing a number of symbolic links. Some begin with a K, the others begin with an S, and all of them have two numbers following the initial letter. The K means to stop (kill) a service and the S means to start a service. The numbers determine the order in which the scripts are run, from 00 to 99—the lower the number the earlier it gets executed. When init switches to another run-level, the appropriate services get killed and others get started.

The real scripts are in /etc/rc.d/init.d. They do the actual work, and the symlinks all point to them. Killing links and starting links point to the same script in /etc/rc.d/init.d. This is because the scripts can be called with different parameters like start, stop, restart, reload, and status. When a K link is encountered, the appropriate script is run with the stop argument. When an S link is encountered, the appropriate script is run with the start argument.

There is one exception to this explanation. Links that start with an S in the rc0.d and rc6.d directories will not cause anything to be started. They will be called with the parameter stop to stop something. The logic behind this is that when a user is going to reboot or halt the system, nothing needs to be started. The system only needs to be stopped.

These are descriptions of what the arguments make the scripts do:

start

The service is started.

stop

The service is stopped.

restart

The service is stopped and then started again.

reload

The configuration of the service is updated. This is used after the configuration file of a service was modified, when the service does not need to be restarted.

status

Tells if the service is running and with which PIDs.

Feel free to modify the way the boot process works (after all, it is your own LFS system). The files given here are an example of how it can be done.

Device and Module Handling on an LFS System

In Chapter 6, we installed the Udev package. Before we go into the details regarding how this works, a brief history of previous methods of handling devices is in order.

Linux systems in general traditionally use a static device creation method, whereby a great many device nodes are created under /dev (sometimes literally thousands of nodes), regardless of whether the corresponding hardware devices actually exist. This is typically done via a MAKEDEV script, which contains a number of calls to the mknod program with the relevant major and minor device numbers for every possible device that might exist in the world. Using the udev method, only those devices which are detected by the kernel get device nodes created for them. Because these device nodes will be created each time the system boots, they will be stored on a ramfs (a file system that resides entirely in memory and does not take up any disk space). Device nodes do not require much disk space, so the memory that is used in negligable.

History

In February 2000, a new filesystem called devfs was merged into the 2.3.46 kernel and was made available during the 2.4 series of stable kernels. Although it was present in the kernel source itself, this method of creating devices dynamically never received overwhelming support from the core kernel developers.

The main problem with the approach adopted by devfs was the way it handled device detection, creation, and naming. The latter issue, that of device node naming, was perhaps the most critical. It is generally accepted that if device names are allowed to be configurable, then the device naming policy should be up to a system administrator, not imposed on them by any particular developer(s). The devfs file system also suffers from race conditions that are inherent in its design and cannot be fixed without a substantial revision to the kernel. It has also been marked as deprecated due to a lack of recent maintenance.

With the development of the unstable 2.5 kernel tree, later released as the 2.6 series of stable kernels, a new virtual filesystem called sysfs came to be. The job of sysfs is to export a view of the system's structure to userspace processes. With this userspace visible representation, the possibility of seeing a userspace replacement for devfs became much more realistic.

Udev Implementation

The sysfs filesystem was mentioned briefly above. One may wonder how sysfs knows about the devices present on a system and what device numbers should be used. Drivers that have been compiled into the kernel directly register their objects with sysfs as they are detected by the kernel. For drivers compiled as modules, this will happen when the module is loaded. Once the sysfs filesystem is mounted (on /sys), the data which the built-in drivers registered with sysfs are available to userspace processes and to udev for device node creation.

The S10udev initscript takes care of creating these device nodes when Linux is booted. This script starts with registering /sbin/udev as a hotplug event handler. Hotplug events (discussed below) should not be generated during this stage, but udev is registered just in case they do occur. The udevstart program then walks through the /sys filesystem and creates devices under /dev that match the descriptions. For example, /sys/class/tty/vcs/dev contains the string “7:0” This string is used by udevstart to create /dev/vcs with major number 7 and minor 0. The permissions of each and every device that udevstart creates are set using files from the /etc/udev.d/permissions.d/ directory. These are numbered in a similar fashion to the LFS bootscripts. If udev cannot find a permissions file for the device it is creating, it will default permissions to 600 and ownership to root:root. The names of the nodes created under the /dev directory are configured according to the rules specified in the files within the /etc/udev/rules.d/ directory.

Once the above stage is complete, all devices that were already present and have compiled-in drivers will be available for use. What about those devices that have modular drivers?

Earlier, we mentioned the concept of a “hotplug event handler.” When a new device connection is detected by the kernel, the kernel will generate a hotplug event and look at the file /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug to find out the userspace program that handles the device's connection. The udev initscript registered udev as this handler. When these hotplug events are generated, the kernel will tell udev to check the /sys filesystem for the information pertaining to this new device and create the /dev entry for it.

This brings us to one problem that exists with udev, and likewise with devfs before it. It is commonly referred to as the “chicken and egg” problem. Most Linux distrubtions handle loading modules via entries in /etc/modules.conf. Access to a device node causes the appropriate kernel module to load. With udev, this method will not work because the device node does not exist until the module is loaded. To solve this, the S05modules bootscript was added to the lfs-bootscripts package, along with the /etc/sysconfig/modules file. By adding module names to the modules file, these modules will be loaded when the computer is starting up. This allows udev to detect the devices and create the appropriate device nodes.

Note that on slower machines or for drivers that create a lot of device nodes, the process of creating devices may take a few seconds to complete. This means that some device nodes may not be immediately accessible.

Handling Hotpluggable/Dynamic Devices

When you plug in a device, such a Universal Serial Bus (USB) MP3 player, the kernel recognizes that the device is now connected and generates a hotplug event. If the driver is already loaded (either because it was compiled into the kernel or because it was loaded via the S05modules bootscript), udev will be called upon to create the relevant device node(s) according to the sysfs data available in /sys. If the driver for the just plugged in device is available as a module but currently unloaded, then attaching the device to the system will only cause the kernel's bus driver to generate a hotplug event that notifies userspace of the new device connection and it not being attached to a driver. In effect, nothing happens and the device itself is not usable yet.

If building a system that has a lot of drivers compiled as modules rather than directly built into the kernel, using the S05modules may not be practical. The Hotplug package (see http://linux-hotplug.sourceforge.net/) can be beneficial in these cases. When the Hotplug package is installed, it will respond to the aforementioned kernel's bus driver hotplug events. The Hotplug package will load the appropriate module and make this device available by creating the device node(s) for it.

Problems with Creating Devices

There are a few known problems when it comes to automatically creating devices nodes:

1) A kernel driver may not export its data to sysfs.

This is most common with third party drivers from outside the kernel tree. These drivers will not end up having their device nodes created. Use the /etc/sysconfig/createfiles configuration file to manually create the devices. Consult the devices.txt file inside the kernel documentation or the documentation for that driver to find the proper major/minor numbers.

2) A non-hardware device is required. This is most common with the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) project's Open Sound System (OSS) compatibility module. These types of devices can be handled in one of two ways:

  • Adding the module names to /etc/sysconfig/modules

  • Using an “install” line in /etc/modprobe.conf. This tells the modprobe command “when loading this module, also load this other module, at the same time.” For example:

    install snd-pcm modprobe -i snd-pcm ; modprobe \
        snd-pcm-oss ; true
    

    This will cause the system to load both the snd-pcm and snd-pcm-oss modules when any request is made to load the driver snd-pcm.

Configuring the setclock Script

The setclock script reads the time from the hardware clock, also known as BIOS or the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) clock. If the hardware clock is set to UTC, this script will convert the hardware clock's time to the local time using the /etc/localtime file (which tells the hwclock program which timezone the user is in). There is no way to detect whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC time, so this needs to be manually configured.

If you cannot remember whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC time, find out by running the hwclock --localtime --show command. This will tell what the current time is according to the hardware clock. If this time matches whatever your watch says, then the hardware clock is set to local time. If the output from hwclock is not local time, chances are it is set to UTC time. Verify this by adding or subtracting the proper amount of hours for the timezone to this hwclock time. For example, if you live in the MST timezone, which is also known as GMT -0700, add seven hours to the local time. Then, account for Daylight Savings Time, which requires subtracting an hour (or only add six in the first place) during the summer months.

Change the value of the UTC variable below to a value of 0 (zero) if the hardware clock is not set to UTC time.

Create a new file /etc/sysconfig/clock by running the following:

cat > /etc/sysconfig/clock << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/sysconfig/clock

UTC=1

# End /etc/sysconfig/clock
EOF

A good hint explaining how to deal with time on LFS is available at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/time.txt. It explains issues such as time zones, UTC, and the TZ environment variable.

Configuring the Linux Console

This section discusses how to configure the console initscript that sets up the keyboard map and the console font. If non-ASCII characters (British pound and Euro character are examples of non-ASCII characters) will not be used and the keyboard is a U.S. one, skip this section. Without the configuration file, the console initscript will do nothing.

The console script uses the /etc/sysconfig/console as a configuration file. Decide which keymap and screen font will be used. The language-specific HOWTO can help with this. A pre-made /etc/sysconfig/console file with known settings for several countries was installed with the LFS-Bootscripts package, so the relevant section can be uncommented if the country is supported. If still in doubt, look in the /usr/share/kbd directory for valid keymaps and screen fonts. Read the loadkeys and setfont manual pages and determine the correct arguments for these programs. Once decided, create the configuration file with the following command:

cat >/etc/sysconfig/console <<"EOF"
KEYMAP="[arguments for loadkeys]"
FONT="[arguments for setfont]"
EOF

For example, for Spanish users who also want to use the Euro character (accessible by pressing AltGr+E), the following settings are correct:

cat >/etc/sysconfig/console <<"EOF"
KEYMAP="es euro2"
FONT="lat9-16 -u iso01"
EOF
[Note]

Note

The FONT line above is correct only for the ISO 8859-15 character set. If using ISO 8859-1 and, therefore, a pound sign instead of Euro, the correct FONT line would be:

FONT="lat1-16"

If the KEYMAP or FONT variable is not set, the console initscript will not run the corresponding program.

In some keymaps, the Backspace and Delete keys send characters different from ones in the default keymap built into the kernel. This confuses some applications. For example, Emacs displays its help (instead of erasing the character before the cursor) when Backspace is pressed. To check if the keymap in use is effected (this works only for i386 keymaps):

zgrep '\W14\W' [/path/to/your/keymap]

If the keycode 14 is Backspace instead of Delete, create the following keymap snippet to fix this issue:

mkdir -p /etc/kbd && cat > /etc/kbd/bs-sends-del <<"EOF"
                  keycode  14 = Delete Delete Delete Delete
              alt keycode  14 = Meta_Delete
        altgr alt keycode  14 = Meta_Delete
                  keycode 111 = Remove
    altgr control keycode 111 = Boot
      control alt keycode 111 = Boot
altgr control alt keycode 111 = Boot
EOF

Tell the console script to load this snippet after the main keymap:

cat >>/etc/sysconfig/console <<"EOF"
KEYMAP_CORRECTION="/etc/kbd/bs-sends-del"
EOF

To compile the keymap directly into the kernel instead of setting it every time from the console bootscript, follow the instructions given in the section called “Linux-2.6.8.1” Doing this ensures that the keyboard will always work as expected, even when booting into maintenance mode (by passing init=/bin/sh to the kernel), because the console bootscript will not be run in that situation. Additionally, the kernel will not set the screen font automatically. This should not pose many problems because ASCII characters will be handled correctly, and it is unlikely that a user would need to rely on non-ASCII characters while in maintenance mode.

Since the kernel will set up the keymap, it is possible to omit the KEYMAP variable from the /etc/sysconfig/console configuration file. It can also be left in place, if desired, without consequence. Keeping it could be beneficial if running several different kernels where it is difficult to ensure that the keymap is compiled into every one of them.

Creating the /etc/inputrc File

The /etc/inputrc file deals with mapping the keyboard for specific situations. This file is the start-up file used by Readline, the input-related library used by Bash and most other shells.

For more information, see the bash info page, section Readline Init File. The readline info page is also a good source of information.

Global values are set in /etc/inputrc. Personal user values are set in ~/.inputrc. The ~/.inputrc file will override the global settings file. A later page sets up Bash to use /etc/inputrc if there is no .inputrc for a user when /etc/profile is read (usually at login). To make the system use both, or to negate global keyboard handling, it is a good idea to place a default .inputrc into the /etc/skel directory for use with new users.

Below is a base /etc/inputrc, along with comments to explain what the various options do. Note that comments cannot be on the same line as commands.

To create the .inputrc in /etc/skel using the command below, change the command's output to /etc/skel/.inputrc and be sure to check/set permissions afterward. Copy that file to /etc/inputrc and the home directory of any user already existing on the system, including root, that needs a private version of the file. Be certain to use the -p parameter of cp to maintain permissions and be sure to change owner and group appropriately.

cat > /etc/inputrc << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/inputrc
# Modified by Chris Lynn <roryo@roryo.dynup.net>

# Make sure we don't output everything on the 1 line
set horizontal-scroll-mode Off

# Enable 8bit input
set meta-flag On 
set input-meta On

# Turns off 8th bit stripping
set convert-meta Off

# Keep the 8th bit for display
set output-meta On

# none, visible or audible
set bell-style none

# All of the following map the escape sequence of the 
# value contained inside the 1st argument to the 
# readline specific functions

"\eOd": backward-word
"\eOc": forward-word

# for linux console
"\e[1~": beginning-of-line
"\e[4~": end-of-line
"\e[5~": beginning-of-history
"\e[6~": end-of-history
"\e[3~": delete-char
"\e[2~": quoted-insert

# for xterm
"\eOH": beginning-of-line
"\eOF": end-of-line

# for Konsole
"\e[H": beginning-of-line
"\e[F": end-of-line

# End /etc/inputrc
EOF

The Bash Shell Startup Files

The shell program /bin/bash (hereafter referred to as “the shell”) uses a collection of startup files to help create an environment to run in. Each file has a specific use and may effect login and interactive environments differently. The files in the /etc directory provide global settings. If an equivalent file exists in the home directory, it may override the global settings.

An interactive login shell is started after a successful login, using /bin/login, by reading the /etc/passwd file. An interactive non-login shell is started at the command-line (e.g., [prompt]$/bin/bash). A non-interactive shell is usually present when a shell script is running. It is non-interactive because it is processing a script and not waiting for user input between commands.

For more information, see info bash - Nodes: Bash Startup Files and Interactive Shells.

The files /etc/profile and ~/.bash_profile are read when the shell is invoked as an interactive login shell.

A base /etc/profile below sets some environment variables necessary for native language support. Setting them properly results in:

  • The output of programs translated into the native language

  • Correct classification of characters into letters, digits and other classes. This is necessary for Bash to properly accept non-ASCII characters in command lines in non-English locales

  • The correct alphabetical sorting order for the country

  • Appropriate default paper size

  • Correct formatting of monetary, time, and date values

This script also sets the INPUTRC environment variable that makes Bash and Readline use the /etc/inputrc file created earlier.

Replace [ll] below with the two-letter code for the desired language (e.g., “en”) and [CC] with the two-letter code for the appropriate country (e.g., “GB”). It may also be necessary to specify (and this is actually the preferred form) the character encoding (e.g. “iso8859-1”) after a dot (so that the result is “en_GB.iso8859-1”). Issue the following command for more information:

man 3 setlocale

The list of all locales supported by Glibc can be obtained by running the following command:

locale -a

Once the proper locale settings have been determined, create the /etc/profile file:

cat > /etc/profile << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/profile

export LC_ALL=[ll]_[CC]
export LANG=[ll]_[CC]
export INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc

# End /etc/profile
EOF
[Note]

Note

The “C” (default) and “en_US” (the recommended one for United States English users) locales are different.

Setting the keyboard layout, screen font, and locale-related environment variables are the only internationalization steps needed to support locales that use ordinary single-byte encodings and left-to-right writing direction. More complex cases (including UTF-8 based locales) require additional steps and additional patches because many applications tend to not work properly under such conditions. These steps and patches are not included in the LFS book and such locales are not supported by LFS in any way.

Configuring the sysklogd Script

The sysklogd script invokes the syslogd program with the -m 0 option. This option turns off the periodic timestamp mark that syslogd writes to the log files every 20 minutes by default. To turn on this periodic timestamp mark, edit the sysklogd script and make the changes accordingly. See man syslogd for more information.

Configuring the localnet Script

Part of the localnet script is setting up the system's hostname. This needs to be configured in the /etc/sysconfig/network.

Create the /etc/sysconfig/network file and enter a hostname by running:

echo "HOSTNAME=[lfs]" > /etc/sysconfig/network

[lfs] needs to be replaced with the name the computer is to be called. Do not enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) here. That information will be put in the /etc/hosts file later.

Creating the /etc/hosts File

If a network card is to be configured, decide on the IP-address, FQDN, and possible aliases for use in the /etc/hosts file. The syntax is:

<IP address> myhost.example.org aliases

Unless the computer is to be visible to the Internet (e.g., there is a registered domain and a valid block of assigned IP addresses—most users do not have this), make sure that the IP address is in the private network IP address range. Valid ranges are:

    Class Networks
        A     10.0.0.0
        B     172.16.0.0 through 172.31.0.0
        C     192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.0

A valid IP address could be 192.168.1.1. A valid FQDN for this IP could be www.linuxfromscratch.org (not recommended because this is a valid registered domain address and could cause domain name server issues).

Even if not using a network card, an FQDN is still required. This is necessary for certain programs to operate correctly.

Create the /etc/hosts file by running:

cat > /etc/hosts << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/hosts (network card version)

127.0.0.1 localhost
[192.168.1.1] [<HOSTNAME>.example.org] [HOSTNAME]

# End /etc/hosts (network card version)
EOF

The [192.168.1.1] and [<HOSTNAME>.example.org] values need to be changed for specific users or requirements (if assigned an IP address by a network/system administrator and the machine will be connected to an existing network).

If a network card is not going to be configured, create the /etc/hosts file by running:

cat > /etc/hosts << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/hosts (no network card version)

127.0.0.1 [<HOSTNAME>.example.org] [HOSTNAME] localhost

# End /etc/hosts (no network card version)
EOF

Configuring the network Script

This section only applies if a network card is to be configured.

If a network card will not be used, there is likely no need to create any configuration files relating to network cards. If that is the case, remove the network symlinks from all run-level directories (/etc/rc.d/rc*.d).

Creating Network Interface Configuration Files

Which interfaces are brought up and down by the network script depends on the files in the /etc/sysconfig/network-devices directory. This directory should contain files in the form of ifconfig.xyz, where “xyz” is a network interface name (such as eth0 or eth0:1).

If the /etc/sysconfig/network-devices directory is to be renamed or moved, make sure to edit the /etc/sysconfig/rc file and update the “network_devices” option by providing it with the new path.

New files are created in this directory. The following command creates a sample ipv4 file for the eth0 device:

cd /etc/sysconfig/network-devices &&
mkdir ifconfig.eth0 &&
cat > ifconfig.eth0/ipv4 << "EOF"
ONBOOT=yes
SERVICE=ipv4-static
IP=192.168.1.1
GATEWAY=192.168.1.2
PREFIX=24
BROADCAST=192.168.1.255
EOF

The values of these variables must be changed in every file to match the proper setup. If the ONBOOT variable is set to “yes” the network script will bring up the Network Interface Card (NIC) during booting of the system. If set to anything but “yes” the NIC will be ignored by the network script and not brought up.

The SERVICE variable defines the method of obtaining the IP address. The LFS bootscripts have a modular IP assignment format, and creating additional files in the /etc/sysconfig/network-devices/services directory allows other IP assignment methods. This is commonly used for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which is addressed in the BLFS book.

The GATEWAY variable should contain the default gateway IP address, if one is present. If not, then comment out the variable entirely.

The PREFIX variable needs to contain the number of bits used in the subnet. Each octet in an IP address is 8 bits. If the subnet's netmask is 255.255.255.0, then it is using the first three octets (24 bits) to specify the network number. If the netmask is 255.255.255.240, it would be using the first 28 bits. Prefixes longer than 24 bits are commonly used by DSL- and cable-based Internet Service Providers (ISPs). In this example (PREFIX=24), the netmask is 255.255.255.0. Adjust according to the specific subnet.

Creating the /etc/resolv.conf File

If the system is going to be connected to the Internet, it will need some means of Domain Name Service (DNS) name resolution to resolve Internet domain names to IP addresses, and vice versa. This is best achieved by placing the IP address of the DNS server, available from the ISP or network administrator, into /etc/resolv.conf. Create the file by running the following:

cat > /etc/resolv.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/resolv.conf

domain {[Your Domain Name]}
nameserver [IP address of your primary nameserver]
nameserver [IP address of your secondary nameserver]

# End /etc/resolv.conf
EOF

Replace [IP address of the nameserver] with the IP address of the DNS most appropriate for the setup. There will often be more than one entry (requirements demand secondary servers for fallback capability). If you only need or want one DNS server, remove the second nameserver line from the file. The IP address may also be a router on the local network.

Chapter 8. Making the LFS System Bootable

Introduction

It is time to make the LFS system bootable. This chapter discusses creating an fstab file, building a kernel for the new LFS system, and installing the Grub boot loader so that the LFS system can be selected for booting at startup.

Creating the /etc/fstab File

The /etc/fstab file is used by some programs to determine where file systems are to be mounted by default, which must be checked, and in which order. Create a new file systems table like this:

cat > /etc/fstab << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/fstab

# file system  mount-point  type   options         dump  fsck
#                                                        order

/dev/[xxx]     /            [fff]  defaults        1